Literature: Journalism and Journalism education

A bibliography of key work in the literature about evolving models of journalism education in Australia, the USA and Britain. This survey was completed early 2012 and includes journal articles and a selection of Australian newspaper reports.
Adams, D. A. and L. R. Duffield (2005). Profiles of journalism education: what students are being offered in Australia. Journalism Education Association, Annual Conference. Griffith University.
Alysen, B. (2001). “Tertiary journalism education: Its value in cadet selection at Metropolitan Media.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(10): 101-111.

Tertiary study in journalism has been a feature of the education of Australian journalists for decades. Yet the value of what is loosely termed a ‘journalism degree’ continues to be debated, and many industry representatives remain sceptical of its value. Journalism educators have a number of ways of assessing the level of industry acceptance of journalism education. These include looking at the percentage of students who find employment and the percentage of journalism graduates who fill entry-level positions. This paper addresses the latter category, looking at data on the employment of entry-level journalists at four major institutions over a period of several years.

Alysen, B. (2005). The dissapering cadetship: trends in entry level journalism employment 1995-2005. Journalism Education Conference. Griffith University.

One of the essential and ongoing preoccupations of journalism education is the issue of graduate employment. Over the last two decades, this has been addressed from a series of perspectives including the aspirations of students undertaking tertiary journalism study (Alysen & Oakham 1996), the process of seeking employment in the profession (Pearson & Johnston 1998) the process of cadetship (Pearson 1988), what various arms of the industry look for in entry level applicants (Vine 2001, Alysen 1998), outcomes for graduates (O’Donnell 1999) and whether industry can absorb the numbers graduating from tertiary journalism courses (Patching 1996). At a wider level, this discussion could also be seen to include the intermittent arguments about the merits of tertiary journalism courses as a means of preparing journalists for the workplace and, taking it one step further, whether universities are the best places in which to incubate young journalists, a stand-off which reached its most public and vitriolic level in the ‘media wars’ of the mid-1990s.

Alysen, B. (2008). A strategy for vocational education in the news media at a time of industrial change : bridging the contradiction in Journalism education. AARE 2007 International education research conference. P. L. Jeffrey. Freemantle.

Journalism remains a popular subject choice for Australian students, with more than twenty universities offering undergraduate courses with a major in the subject. Unlike the situation in some other ‘professional’ subject areas, enrolments in Journalism are driven by student interest rather than industry demand. Indeed, the industry itself is in a state of flux as it manoeuvres to meet the challenges and opportunities presented by technological change and shifts in media ownership. This research considers trends, over the past decade, in entry-level employment in the Australian news media and the impact on journalism education. While the number of mainstream media positions is contracting, opportunities are opening up in other parts of the media. However, many of these jobs lack the public-interest element that traditionally drew young people into journalism. How then do journalism educators bridge the gaps: Between ideals and reality; between student hopes and industry practice?

Anderson, C. W., et al. (2011). Shaping 21st century journalism: Leveraging a “teaching hospital model” in journalism education Media Policy Initiative. Washington, New America Foundation: 38.

As the media industry evolves to meet the challenges of the emerging digitally-networked era, so too are journalism schools. Democracy and healthy local communities require this evolution. As the media industry reshapes itself, a tremendous opportunity emerges for organizations nor journalism programs will disappear, but both must rethink their missions, particularly now that many more people can be journalists (at least, on an occasional basis) and many more people produce media than ever before.

Auman, A. and J. Lillie (2008). “An Evaluation of team-teaching models in a media convergence curriculum.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(62): 360-375.

This article evaluates team teaching models of new media convergence curriculum at a small, undergraduate journalism program. In the models, degrees of faculty collaboration vary depending on course level and goal. Students in  first-year, basic journalism classes benefited from a lower level of collaboration than those in second-year classes where advanced cross-platform, integrated knowledge, and skills were needed. We suggest that team teaching and teaching media convergence go hand-in-hand; however, a successful program depends on administrative support and the willingness of instructors to collaborate and learn new skills and knowledge across media platforms.

Aumente, J. (2007). Multimedia journalism changes what universities teach. Neiman Report. M. Ludke, The Neiman Foundation for Journalsim. Fall.
Bacon, W. (1999). “What is a journalist in a university?” Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy(90): 79-90.

This pape’ argues that those wllo see no place for media theory in journalism education have adopted an intellectual approach to journalism which is both il1ilppropriate in a university context and serves neither journalism nor audiences well. Rather, the interaction between the professional practice of journalism and theory and research into journalism can be a close and dynamic one in which research can produce innovative journalism and tIle professional practice of journalism and experiences of audiences enn feed into a research agenda. Links between journalism research and journalism professional practice can be found in journalism aoout journalism and in the evenJday talk of journalists and audiences. Three case studies which have arisen during recent experience in teaching journalism at the Universifl) of Teclmology, Sydney are used to demonstrate these points.

Bajkiewicz, T. E. (2009). “Save the academy, save journalism: why we need pros getting PhDs.” Electronic News 3(1): 5-9.
Barrett, M. and L. Austin (2012). Removing barriers to innovation in journalism education: a case study. International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design. Istanbul, Turkey, Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication.

Inertia, fear of change, avoidance of risk and the challenge of constantly creating something new are the factors most often cited for why innovation is so difficult to sustain in any organization. Fostering innovation requires not only overcoming these barriers, but establishing a culture where its members are able to take risks without punishment; where the focus is on the future and where innovation is rewarded. In today’s dynamic journalism environment, more and more industry leaders are looking to journalism schools for new ways to tell stories and to disseminate those stories to the public.

Inertia, fear of change, avoidance of risk and the challenge of constantly creating something new are the factors most often cited for why innovation is so difficult to sustain in any organization. Fostering innovation requires not only overcoming these barriers, but establishing a culture where its members are able to take risks without punishment, where the focus is on the future and where innovation is rewarded.

In today’s dynamic journalism environment, more and more industry leaders are looking to journalism schools for new ways to tell stories and to disseminate those stories to the public. This paper provides a case study of how one institution, the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University in Phoenix has broken down barriers and created a place where innovation flourishes.

Beckett, C. (2011). SuperMedia: saving journalism so it can save the world, John Wiley & Sons.
Benigni, V., et al. (2011). “Establishing a “renown-grown” relationship: the role of advisory boards in communication progarms.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(66): 54-68.

With declining budgets and increased pressure to deliver a prepared and hirable workforce, universities must look externally for resources to assist with recruiting and retaining top students. This nationwide survey of journalism and mass com- munication programs shows that while some programs have reached out to external professionals for advice and support, many units seem reluctant to take advantage of industry experts. While administrators and faculty at programs with advisory boards are aware of and motivated by advice of board members, students generally have limited interactions with board members. Best practices are known and can be implemented.

Berkeley, L. (2009). “Media education and new technology: a case study of major curriculum change within a university media degree.” Journal of Media Practice 10(2-3): 185-197.

The Bachelor of Communication (Media) degree at RMIT University has been in existence for 30 years. It has offered students both an academic education in humanities and communication fields and a professional education in practical television and radio production. However, until recently, there have been virtually no links between the academic and production components of the degree. Con- cerns about this educationally schizophrenic structure, combined with a realiza- tion of significant changes in the media production industries, prompted a comprehensive review of the degree. The degree that emerged from the review has an emphasis on process-based learning and network literacy. Every student has a blog, which is a fully public networked document used in core subjects and all year levels. Video and audio are incorporated into blogs and students are encouraged to produce academic texts that include all forms of media. Through these and other changes, the curriculum encourages students to become independent learners in a rapidly changing media environment.

Bethell, P. (2010). “Journalism students’ experience of mobile phone technology: implications for journalism education.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(20): 103-114.

This study investigates journalism students’ usage of mobile phone technology when they begin their university studies and considers the implications of these baseline data for journalism education. This paper reports on the findings of three consecutive annual surveys of first year journalism students about their use of the applications available on their mobile phones. The surveys confirm that as well as using their phones to text and call, many are making video calls and most have shot photos and videos on their phones by the time they arrive at university. Many are using their phones to send or publish these images. More than half of the students now go online on their mobile phones. This evidence will inform journalism educators seeking to update their teaching practices and curricula.

Bhuiyan, S. I. (2010). “Commentary: Teaching media convergence and its challenges.” Asia Pacific Media Educator(20): 115-122.

Many of my colleagues from journalism schools in the United States have for many years been bulking up on convergent media courses to prepare the next generation of reporters for an industry that is being reshaped by digital communication technologies. Concepts and theories of internet journalism were first taught during the days of HTML programming in the early1990s. Some have embraced the need to teach ‘new media’ skills wholeheartedly, some gingerly, and some not at all. What are the plausible reasons behind these mixed sentiments towards the teaching of convergent media courses? Are academics’ multimedia skills keeping pace with their students who are commonly referred to as ‘digital natives’? Is the emphasis on technology-oriented production courses overlooking the imperative of teaching students the fundamentals of clear, succinct reporting?

Bird, E. (2009). “The future of journalism in the digital environment.” Journalism 10(3): 293-295.
Birge, E. (2004). “Teaching convergence – but what is it?” The Quill 92(4).
Birge, E. (2006). “The Great Divide: journalsim schools around the country are doing their best to churn out students with multimedia skills. But is the industry really ready for them?” The Quill 94(6): 20-24.

This article discusses journalism schools, which are doing their best to teach multimedia skills and asks if the industry is ready for those students. Janet Kolodzy, an assistant professor of journalism at Emerson College in Boston, Massachusetts, discusses how local editors are searching for graduates who had writing, reporting, critical thinking, and multimedia skills. David Bailey, managing editor of the “Arkansas Democrat-Gazette,” discusses his opinion that few graduates are prepared for the business world and that there is a lot of on-the-job training.

Biswas, M. and R. Izard (2010). “2009 assessment of the status of diversity education in journalism and mass communication programs.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 64(4): 378-394.

This article assesses the status of diversity education in 2008–2009 in both accredited and non-accredited journalism and mass communication programs in U.S. colleges and universities. Using survey responses from 105 academic programs, findings support earlier studies that found the number of special courses on media diversity is increasing steadily. Findings also identify a preference for integrating diversity content across the curriculum. Among factors pushing these improvements are accreditation standards and an increasing multicultural environment.

Blair, M. (2007). “Unconvering the place of creative non-fiction in Australian journalsim departments.” Asia Pacific Media Educator(18): 16-30.
Blom, R. and L. D. Davenport (2012). “Searching for the core of journalism education: Program Directors disagree on curriculum priorities.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 67(1): 70-86.
Bollinger, L. (2003) The future of journalism education. Columbia News

At the beginning of the last century, Joseph Pulitzer bequeathed two major gifts to Columbia University: one to establish the premier school of journalism in the nation and the other to create a prize, sponsored by a great university and judged by great journalists, to honor the highest levels of journalistic achievement. These gifts came at a time of tremendous, destabilizing social change in America, a time in which the role of journalism was also changing rapidly. And they were motivated in part by Pulitzer’s belief that journalism needed institutions that would help it adjust to a new role in a new era. There can be little doubt that together these have been significant contributions to the development of journalism over the last century.

Bolton, T. (2006). “News on the net: a critical analyis of the potential of online alternative journalism to challenge the dominance of mainstream news media.” Scan Journal 3(1).
Bowman, L. F. and A. Lund (2007). Pathways to the profession: a study in integrating journalism degree programs with the world of work. Proceedings ATN Evaluation and Assessment Conference 2007.
Brown, T. and S. Collins (2010). “What ”They” Want From ”Us” : Industry Expectations of Journalism Graduates.” Electronic News 4: 68-82.

As new delivery methods for traditional journalism emerge, the lack of a clear direction from the industry creates curriculum problems for educators. Through a national survey, researchers asked newspaper and television news personnel which skills they think are most important for job applicants to have. Results show that news organizations still want the same skills they’ve always sought with two additions: (a) an awareness among reporters, photographers, producers, and copy editors of what multimedia elements might add to their stories and (b) a select few students who want to become online producers who can maximize the multimedia elements. The results indicate that educators might want to hold off abandoning the teaching of traditional, medium-specific skills for the time being, while incorporat- ing more multimedia education into their curricula.

Callaghan, R. (2009). A toe in the water and a bet both ways: a rationale for teaching convergence journalism, Edith Cowan University.

Call them digital or call them converged, there is no doubt that newsrooms in Australia and elsewhere in the world are changing. No longer are a pen and paper the only equipment a journalist needs to do their jobs: many newsrooms are employing the skills of video journalists, mobile journalists and backpack journalists, radio stations are posting web articles and TV stations are preparing video for mobile phones. Yet there is considerable debate within university institutions over how best to prepare journalism students for this new workplace — and even whether the industry knows just what it wants. This paper gives a background to a debate that is raging in US journalism schools, if only smouldering in Australian ones, and looks at an experimental convergence journalism unit at Edith Cowan University that attempts to put some of the concepts into practice without over-reaching.

Callaghan, R. (2011). Selling the dream: Are we offering employability or making a vocational offer? Teaching & Learning Forum.

Journalism programs developed in Australia in the early 20th century and flourished in the late 1980s and 1990s (Sheridan Burns, 2003; Stuart, 1997). A decade into the 21st century, there are more than 20 journalism programs around Australia competing for students interested in studying the profession and learning its practices. While research suggests just a third of these students will end up working in the industry, studies also show many students are unhappy if they miss out on a journalistic job, believing it a natural progression from their undergraduate studies into journalism employment. This paper investigates the online information provided to potential journalism students at different Australian universities and private colleges, with the intention of assessing how strongly educators are making a link between the skills offered within a set degree and eventual employment in the journalism industry. It finds that some online handbooks effectively make a ‘vocational offer’, linking study with a career in the field, while others are more anxious to promote multiple career paths. It argues increased candour is not, in fact, a disadvantage and could allow universities to diversify its appeal to students beyond a small core of would-be journalists.

Callaghan, R. and J. McManus (2010). “Building the perfect graduate: What news employers want in new hires.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(20): 9-21.

The converged media environment has prompted journalism educators to question whether they should increase the use of digital media technology in the classroom and teach across multiple platforms. Newsroom surveys, however, reveal that Australian and US news employers are emphasising traditional journalism skills. This paper examines whether journalism schools are producing graduates with skills sets that media organisations may not consider highly critical to a cadetship. Research was undertaken to examine graduate skills deemed most important by West Australian news employers. The findings echo US employers in their preference for traditional journalism skills, such as good writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation, general knowledge and understanding of ethics. Digital skills remain the poor cousin. But they also want graduates who embody the journalistic ‘ideal’: curious, hard-working, driven news hounds, a passion for writing and reporting.

Cameron, D. (2008). Mobile media and the journalism curriculum, Charles Sturt University.

This paper considers the application of mobile media to the university journalism curriculum. Mobile phones are emerging as a media production platform, combining audio/visual recording tools with networked communication. The availability of these devices, and a developing non-professional production culture, highlights the blurring of distinctions between media consumption and production made possible by networked digital technology. The mobile telephone has become a significant instrument in the development of this journalistic form.

Cameron, D. J. (2004). Giving games a day job: developing a digital game- based resource for journalism training. Graduate School of Journalism, University of Wollongong. Master of Arts (Hons.).
Carpenter, S. (2009). “Application of the theory of expertise: teaching broad and skill knowledge areas to prepare journalists for change ” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 64(3): 287-304.

How to educate journalism students for the online world is controversial. For journalism students to become well-rounded journalists, lifelong learners, and experts, journalism education should weave skills with theoretical training, based on Hatano’s theory of expertise. To determine to what extent employers are seeking such applicants, this study examined online media job ads. Results show employers want people with a broad and specific background.

Castaneda, L., et al. (2005). “Teaching print, broadcast, and online journalism concurrently: a case study assessing a convergence curriculum.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 20(1): 57-70.
Christensen, N. (2012). Total number of entry-level jobs in journalism each year is in the low hundreds. The Australian.

AUSTRALIAN universities enrolled a record 4750 journalism students in 2010, even though the media employs only an estimated 9000 journalists — leading to claims from academics that journalism schools are deliberately over-enrolling the degree.

Chu, D. (2009). “Making claims for school media: a study of teachers’ beliefs about media in Hong Kong.” Asia Pacific Journal of Education 29(1): 1-15.

Despite growing calls for media education in different parts of the world, little consensus has been reached over what to teach and how to teach. The implementation of related initiatives varies across different contexts as well as cultures. The outcomes depend largely on the beliefs, attitudes and efforts of individual teachers. This study aims to identify and discuss teachers’ beliefs about media through an analysis of documents related to school media. It examines how 13 secondary schools in Hong Kong justified their applications for funding to set up a school television station. Using methods in documentary research, the study analyses the claims made for school media. The hidden assumptions held by schools towards school media, new media, mass media, media education and media literacy are discussed.

Chung, D., et al. (2007). “Uses and perceptions of blogs: A report on professional journalists and journalism educators.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(62): 305-322.

As journalism educators prepare their students to succeed professionally, whether professional journalists and educators see eye-to-eye on emerging trends that influence current journalism practice is worth examining. A nation- al online survey of journalism professionals and educators found that profes- sionals use blogs significantly more than educators. Educators had similar views of blogs, but professional journalists’ uses and perceptions of blogs varied depending on type of organization they worked for and occupational position in their news organizations. Educators are quick to catch on to national trends in journalism even though they do not routinely use blogs, as they are trained to assess the impact of critical trends i. the discipline.

Claussen, D. S. (2008). “A brief history of Anti-intellectualism in American media “.
Claussen, D. S. (2009). “How One Would Really “Blow Up” a J-School Curriculum.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 64(2): 133-136.

Certain journalism schools around the United States have emphasized their curriculum changes using phrases such as “blowing up the curriculum.” But when the proverbial dust has settled, often the bulk of the changes have been merging two courses into one, splitting one course into two, adding new technol- ogy, and/or teaching courses from a different viewpoint that was there atl along, just ignored or underemphasized, such as what readers want to get out of a news- paper rather than what journalists want to put in it.

Claussen, D. S. (2010). “”Harmonizing” and “Tuning” European JMC education through 26 competences.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(65): 217-220.

Back in 1999, twenty-nine education ministers from European countries signed the Bologna Declaration, which launched the European Higher Education Area and ongoing meetings and agreements lumped under the heading of Bologna Process or Bologna Accords. The goal was to standardize academic standards (and measurement of them) throughout Europe. The Process now includes forty-seven countries. As one might guess, it doesn’t seem like the Process has gone any more smoothly than the European Union generally, for many reasons: differing philosophies of higher education, differing histories of higher education, differing funding for higher education, national pride, language differences, and more.

Coates Nee, R. (2011). The role of the digitally native, nonprofit news media in the future of american journalism: an exploratory study Pepperdine University. Doctor of Education in Learning Technologies.

Unprecedented changes in journalism practices have been occurring since the 21st century ushered in the digital age. Newsgathering methods, means of information delivery, and consumer habits have altered dramatically because of technological advances, causing a disruption in the traditional business model. Newspapers, historically the key instrument for investigative and public affairs reporting in the United States, have been the media sector facing the biggest decline in revenue and circulation. While the audience is migrating to traditional news outlets online, the advertisers are not. Free services such as eBay and Craig’s List have contributed to a nearly 50% drop in revenue for newspapers. Therefore, the once profitable news industry is no longer as attractive to corporate owners with commercial interests. The response has been severe budget and staff cuts. An estimated 30% of traditional journalism jobs have been eliminated.

In response to the fiscal crisis, 60 nonprofit news organizations have formed, mostly online, with the mission of performing public service journalism. Hearings on the future of news have been held by a U.S. Senate committee, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Federal Communications Commission, which is researching whether these digitally native nonprofit news outlets should be eligible for government funding, similar to the public broadcasting system.

The purpose of this exploratory study was to gain a better understanding of how these digitally native nonprofit journalists view their role in the future of public service journalism and determine whether government financing is appropriate or even desired by the leaders of these organizations. Findings suggest that the leaders view their role as necessary to democracy because they provide information about public affairs, serve as a watchdog of government officials, and engage the public in a discussion of community issues using digital technology. However, they cannot perform these functions alone. The leaders see partnerships with commercial and public media as key to their success. The respondents also are concerned with diversifying their revenue streams beyond foundation and philanthropic funding. They do not support direct government subsidies, however, because they believe that type of support would present ethical and credibility issues.

Cochie, M. A. (2008). Convergence in the curriculum: A survey of college communications programs. Arts, University of Florida. Master of Arts in Mass Communication: 75.

Multimedia journalism has transformed the way news is produced and consumed. This study, a survey of college journalism programs, found that the single most important reason for a curriculum revision is to keep up with the now-converged industry standard. In February 2008, college administrators reported whether they included forms of convergence in their curriculum. Through the examination of the data about teaching methods, coursework, facilities and faculty, it was suggested that the majority of administrators and faculty were altering their approach to teaching journalism to include multi-platform training. Only 9% of respondents reported they had not started to discuss a revision to integrate convergence. This study found that at least some form of convergence was present in the majority of programs, whether it is through teaching print and broadcast journalism in the same track, offering new courses, building a multimedia newsroom or hiring new faculty members. This study found that the curriculum alteration depended heavily on industry changes, cost and faculty support.

Cockley, A. J., et al. (2007). Journalism education dilemmas: career-focussed skill set, teamwork or critical thinking? 16th AMIC Annual Conference : Media, Education, and Development : the quest for new paradigms, Singapore, Queensland University of Technology.

In Australian universities, journalism educators usually come to the academy from the journalism profession and consequently place a high priority on leading students to develop a career-focussed skill set. The changing nature of the technological, political and economic environments and the professional destinations of journalism graduates place demands on journalism curricula and educators alike. The profession is diverse, such that the better description is of many ‘‘journalisms’’ rather than one ‘‘journalism’’ with consequential pressures being placed on curricula to extend beyond the traditional skill set, where practical ‘‘writing’’ and ‘‘editing’’ skills dominate, to the incorporation of critical theory and the social construction of knowledge. A parallel set of challenges faces academic staff operating in a higher education environment where change is the only constant and research takes precedent over curriculum development. In this paper, three educators at separate universities report on their attempts to implement curriculum change to imbue graduates with better skills and attributes such as enhanced team work, problem solving and critical thinking, to operate in the divergent environment of 21st century journalism. The paper uses narrative case study to illustrate the different approaches. Data collected from formal university student evaluations inform the narratives along with rich but less formal qualitative data including anecdotal student commentsand student reflective assessment presentations. Comparison of the three approaches illustrates the dilemmas academic staff face when teaching in disciplines that are impacted by rapid changes in technology requiring new pedagogical approaches. Recommendations for future directions are considered against the background or learning purpose.

Cokley, J. (2008). News Corp and Fairfax not the future of journalism. Crikey.
Cokley, J. and A. Ranke (2009). The long tail evident in journalism employment opportunities, but students unaware. Future of Journalism 2009. Cardiff.
Compton, J. R. and P. Bendetti (2010). “Labour, new media and the institutional restructuring of journalism.” Journalism Studies 11(4): 487-499.
Conboy, M. and J. Steel (2008). “The future of newspapers.” Journalism Studies 9(5): 650-661.

To what extent can we disassociate the technology and economics of newspapers from their political and cultural functions? Many of the latter functions have survived previous eras of technological change, often with a heightened promise of a more democratic engagement with readers and a subsequent amelioration of civic communication. Toolan (1998) has provocatively suggested that, in their narrative conventions, newspapers often literally do not know what they are writing about. This has partly been because of the time constraints on the production of news and the narrative conventions which this economy imposes upon them. Yet this clearly has not prevented newspapers from having a very strong sense of longer narratives and ideological identities, in combination with an ability to tailor these to a highly conventional notion of audience. What happens when newspapers are freed from this diurnal duty, as is increasingly the case in the contemporary world of newspapers, when more and more breaking news is dealt with by ‘‘quicker’’ media? Does this provide newspapers in whatever new formats with the opportunity to reconfigure themselves as spaces more accessible to traditions of communication and civic engagement; ones which draw upon a more discursive space of commentary and opinion on the contemporary rather than being limited to the provision of daily news? This paper sketches an analysis of how the shift of newspapers from news to commentary and identity politics which is already occurring may be informed by previous paradigms of periodical news production. It explores certain aspects of the newspaper’s function over time in order to consider what it has to offer in whatever reconfigured technological future.

Couldry, N. (2010). New online sources and writer-gatherers. New Media, Old News. N. Fenton. London, Sage.
Cullen, T. and R. Callaghan (2010). “Promises, promises: are Australian universities deceiving journalism students.” Australian Journalism Review 32(2): 117-128.
Cunningham, S. and T. Flew (1998). Journalism versus culture: a pointless game. The Australian.
Curran, J. (2010). “The future of journalism.” Journalism Studies 11(4): 464-476.

The passage of time has a way of throwing custard pies at those who predict the future.1 This is particularly true in the hype-ridden world of the media. In the 1940s, the Hutchins Commission, an august body of public intellectuals, predicted that the facsimile newspaper delivered by wireless would rejuvenate the American press (Hutchins Commission, 1947). In the 1970s, citizen’s band radio was said authoritatively to be ‘‘taking the US by storm’’, and was poised to recreate a sense of community.2 In 1982, Britain’s Technology Minister, Kenneth Baker, informed the Commons that cable television ‘‘will have more far-reaching effects on our society than the Industrial Revolution 200 years ago’’ (1982, p. 230). In the 1990s, American industry experts like Tom Laster said that the CD-Rom was going to spell the end of the book in schools.3 And in the mid-1990s through to the mid-2000s, it was predicted repeatedly that red button TV interactivism was leading to a fundamental shift of power from the TV director to the consumer in the home (Curran, 2010). All these forecasts proved to be hopelessly wrong. So, heeding past mistakes, I will not attempt to read the runes. Instead, I will leave it to the better informed*farsighted media controllers, canny journalists, visionary academics and others gifted with foresight*to foretell the future of journalism. To start with, I will merely summarise in ideal-typical form what they have to say.

Cushion, S. (2007). “‘On the beat’ or in the classroom: where and how is journalism studied ” Journalism Practice 1(3): 421-434.

It is sometimes easy to get caught up in debates about how new technologies have*or, at least, will*reshape the practice and nature of journalism. But amid the excitement of the latest new craze*of reaching ‘‘convergence’’ for instance*we can perhaps lose sight of the continuities, the core values, that exist within the profession. The two accounts from UK practitioners above concerning the training or education that journalists should receive*more than 100 years apart*are, in this respect, remarkably similar. Despite the expansion of mass education throughout the 20th century, the advice given to aspiring journalists today*as in 1892*is that journalism is something to learn on the job rather than to train for by way of preparation. Both quotes indicate a disdain for university education*for intellectualising the profession*and lend support for a more practical apprenticeship system. To many journalists, then, understanding journalism is best achieved ‘‘on the beat’’*well away from the ‘‘talentless individuals’’ who teach in so many media studies classrooms.

Dehli, K. (2009). “Media literacy and neo-liberal government: pedagogies of freedom and constraint.” Pedagogy, Culture & Society 17(1): 57-73.

This paper examines relations between media education discourses and teachers’ reflections on their work with students around media. Based on a reading of curriculum documents and scholarly debates about media literacy, as well as conversations with teachers in Toronto, I ask how – and whether – formal discourses, common sense and local practices are connected in teachers’ talk. My assumption is that media education forms a set of discourses that are ‘made up’ in part through statements and debates, circulating through professional and academic journals, books, curriculum documents, courses, workshops, conferences, web-sites, electronic communication and so on. Competing claims are made to establish what counts as media education and to assert what good media pedagogy should do and be. I then ask what teachers make of such claims and how – and whether – they are influenced by them. The first part of the paper traces some features of media education discourses over the past thirty-plus years, while the second reports on group interviews with teachers. I show that teachers do not passively adopt or adapt to notions of media education that circulate in formal discourse. Rather, they actively constitute notions of media, youth, earning and pedagogy through their practices and through their conversations about their work with students. The paper concludes with a speculation that the media education classroom may be a particularly fertile site for the production of neo- liberal subjects.

Deuze, M. (2005). “What is journalism? Professional identity and ideology of journalists reconsidered.” Journalism 6(4): 442-464.

The history of journalism in elective democracies around the world has been described as the emergence of a professional identity of journalists with claims to an exclusive role and status in society, based on and at times fiercely defended by their occupational ideology. Although the conceptualization of journalism as a professional ideology can be traced throughout the literature on journalism studies, scholars tend to take the building blocks of such an ideology more or less for granted. In this article the ideal-typical values of journalism’s ideology are operationalized and investigated in terms of how these values are challenged or changed in the context of current cultural and technological developments. It is argued that multiculturalism and multimedia are similar and poignant examples of such developments. If the professional identity of journalists can be seen as kept together by the social cement of an occupational ideology of journalism, the analysis in this article shows how journalism in the self- perceptions of journalists has come to mean much more than its modernist bias of telling people what they need to know.

Deuze, M. (2006). “Global journalism education.” Journalism Studies 7(1): 19-34.

Journalism is a more or less autonomous field of study across the globe, yet the education and training of journalists is a subject much debated*/but only rarely researched. This paper maps some of the salient issues when studying the structure and culture of a journalism education program to identify the key debates facing programs around the world when structuring, rethinking, and building institutions, schools, or departments of journalism where a combination of practical and contextual training is the prime focus. As a point of departure it is assumed that although media systems and journalistic cultures may differ widely, the changes and challenges facing journalism education around the world are largely similar, and thus would benefit from a ‘‘global’’ approach. The key literature and findings from journalism education studies in different parts of the world is thus conceptually synthesized into 10 categories, starting with philosophical notions of motivation and mission, ending with more ‘‘down-to-earth’’ concepts like curriculum and pedagogy. Each category is discussed in terms of the challenges, debates and tensions as educators and trainers in different parts of the world have signaled these.

Deuze, M., et al. (2006). “Journalism education and online journalists in Belgium, Germany, and The Netherlands.” Journalism Studies 5(1): 19-29.
Dickson, T. and W. Brandon (2000). “The gap between educators and professional journalists.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 55(3): 50-67.
Dominigo, D. (2008). “Interactivity in the daily routines of online newsrooms: dealing with an uncomfortable myth.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (13): 690-704.

This article analyzes interactivity in online journalism as a powerful myth with which journalists have to deal in their daily work. A constructivist approach to media innova- tion is used to explore the historical origins of the myth that predicted interactivity would change journalism and to confront it with the actual practices of online media projects through published empirical research and four case studies selected from an average European regional market. The analysis of the cases is based on ethnography of online newsrooms working routines and in-depth interviews with reporters, editors and web developers. The actual role of the myth of interactivity in shaping the development of these four online news projects is discussed taking into account the material and organizational context of the newsrooms. Findings suggest that the professional culture of traditional journalism has a strong inertia in the online newsrooms that prevents them from developing most of the ideals of interactivity, as they do not fit in the stan- dardized news production routines.

Dominigo, D. and A. Heinonen (2008). “Webblogs and journalism: a typology to explore the blurring boundaries.” Nordicom Review(29): 3-15.

From the perspective of journalism, weblogs can be seen as a new category of news and current affairs communication. Although most weblogs do not even pretend to be journal- istic or related to current events in the sense shared by institutional media, when bloggers approach the arena of journalism, some of their working principles can challenge tradi- tional professional standards: Conversation with the audience, transparency in the report- ing process or even participatory news production are common in blogging. By challeng- ing the conventional understanding of what journalism is, weblogs have revitalized the voices that expect a paradigm shift in journalism in the Internet era. In order to contrib- ute to the debate on the influences of weblogs on journalism and make it more system- atic, we propose a typology of journalistic weblogs, along a continuum ranging from the least to the most institutionalized in terms of their relationship to the established media: At one end, we find weblogs produced by the public outside media companies, and at the other end, we find those that are part of media content and produced by professional staff journalists. We argue that weblogs are a symbol of the ongoing change in the relationship between citizens, media and journalists – a change that questions the basic assumptions of the traditional roles of institutional journalism.

Dominigo, D., et al. (2008). “Participatory journalism practices in the media and beyond.” Journalism Practice 2(3): 326-342.

This article is a contribution to the debate on audience participation in online media with a twofold aim: (1) making conceptual sense of the phenomenon of participatory journalism in the framework of journalism research, and (2) determining the forms that it is taking in eight European countries and the United States. First, participatory journalism is considered in the context of the historical evolution of public communication. A methodological strategy for systematically analysing citizen participation opportunities in the media is then proposed and applied. A sample of 16 online newspapers offers preliminary data that suggest news organisations are interpreting online user participation mainly as an opportunity for their readers to debate current events, while other stages of the news production process are closed to citizen involvement or controlled by professional journalists when participation is allowed. However, different strategies exist among the studied sample, and contextual factors should be considered in further research.

Donsbach, W. and T. Fiedler (2008). Journalism school curriculum enrichment: A midterm report of the Carnegie-Knight Initiative on the future of journalism education, Joan Shorenstein Center.

The journalist Walter Williams founded the world’s first journalism school at the Uni- versity of Missouri in 1908. Since then, U.S. journalism programs have set the standard for university-based journalism training. In recent decades, thousands of well-trained journalism school graduates have joined the media work- force each year. Throughout their history, journalism schools have had to adjust to changing market conditions and public concerns. Seldom have the challenges been greater than they are today. The traditional news media have lost a large share of their market. Newspaper circulation has fallen sharply in the past two decades, as has the audience for local and national broad- cast television news. Only a portion of this loss has been recaptured through cable and Internet news outlets. Particularly unsettling is young Americans’ interest in news. Only about a third of adults under 30 say they enjoy “keeping up with the news.”1

Downie Jr, L. and M. Schudson (2009). “The Reconstruction of American Journalism.” Columbia Journalism Review.
Du, Y. R. and R. Thornburg (2011). “The Gap between Online Journalism Education and Practice: The Twin Survey.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 66: 217-230.

This U S . national survey of online journalism professionals and instructors examines and compares their perceptions of skills, concepts, and duties. It offers updated insights into the changes taking place in online journalism classrooms and newsrooms, and uncovers the discordance between online journalism edu- cation and practice. The results show that online journalism education is tied to traditional journalism in many ways, but is not merely a more technologically focused version of traditional journalism. Future journalists should be trained to be well-versed in multiple aspects of journalism and technology, rather than spe- cializing in only one or two types of tasks.

Duffield, L. (2011). “Media skills for daily life: Designing a journalism programme for graduates of all disciplines.” Pacific Journalism Review 17(1): 141-156.

This article in the journalism education field reports on the construction of a new subject as part of a postgraduate coursework degree. The subject, or unit1 will offer both Journalism students and other students an intro- ductory experience of creating media, using common ‘new media’ tools, with exercises that will model the learning of communication principles through practice. It has been named ‘Fundamental Media Skills for the Workplace’. The conceptualisation and teaching of it will be characteristic of the Journalism academic discipline that uses the ‘inside perspective’— understanding mass media by observing from within. Proposers for the unit within the Journalism discipline have sought to extend the common teaching approach, based on training to produce start-ready recruits for media jobs, backed by a study of contexts, e.g. journalistic ethics, or me- dia audiences. In this proposal, students would then examine the process to elicit additional knowledge about their learning. The article draws on literature of journalism and its pedagogy, and on communication generally. It also documents a ‘community of practice’ exercise conducted among practitioners as teachers for the subject, developing exercises and models of media work. A preliminary conclusion from that exercise is that it has taken a step towards enhancing skills-based learning for media work.

Duffield, L. R. (2008). “Student reporting abroad: An international programme called Journalism Reporting Field Trips.” Pacific Journalism Review 14(2): 102-122.

Journalism Reporting Field Trips: Practical work overseas brings home to students “real world” implications of their professional preparation. A program organised by the writer for journalism students to do practical work overseas has seen small groups engaged in inter-cultural learning and working as foreign correspondents for campus- based media outlets. Since 2000, 60 students have joined nine tours of 10 – 20 days, in nine countries of Europe and the Asia Pacific. They obtain credit for a full elective subject, e.g. an individual study unit, and may negotiate additional credit in other subjects. The project’s rationale was that while practice focuses the mind on essential communication tasks, practice in distant and unfamiliar settings intensifies the experience – hence the learning. It replicates journalistic practice of overseas correspondents encountering “high risk and high returns”: more difficulty, more headlines and colour. This practice dovetails with increasing internationalisation of the curriculum. A literature has been consulted identifying main pedagogical arguments for study abroad, and present-day demands on the academy, e.g. preparation of professionals needing to work in their profession anywhere in a “world community”. Leading researchers in this field, viz Jane Knight propose “non- ideological” definitions of internationalised education as a process responding to “real world” demands. The paper assesses documentation kept on field trips’ itineraries; observations made by staff when the students were accompanied; students’ notes and reports on inter-cultural experiences; costs, overwhelmingly met by the students themselves; and the output of news, features or special programs. Outcomes list students’ products and feed-back, academic performance and later achievements. Most participants are motivated to strive in all fields and later have a strong record obtaining employment. Special features are considered, e.g. language learning in contemporary journalism; the program’s popularity among postgraduate students. The investigation concludes that such programs can occupy a valuable place in core curricula; relate to increasing demand for “real world” learning and internationalisation, and can be integrated into degree structures without undue stain on resources.

Dunn, A. (2001). “Observations on the relationship between journalism and university communication and media courses.” Arts 23: 151-163.
Dunn, A. (2004). “From quasi to fully: on journalism as a profession.” Australian Journalsim Review 26(2): 21-30.

Nearly 40 years after the introduction of professional journalism degrees in Australia, there is still tension between those who employ journalists and the role of the journalism graduate. This paper argues that the tension cannot be resolved by universities alone, since it lies within the quasi-professional status of journalism. This status is not solely the result of the conditions of employment of most journalists: it is also a reflection of the lack of coherent standards and unified professional body. There are in addition many journalists for whom the concept of professionalization is anathema. The paper begins with an examination of the features of professionalism, defined as an occupational affective orientation and an ideology. It compares aspects of the way that public relations practitioners have organised with those of journalists, and finds that PR appears more determined to professionalise that does journalism. It contrasts the two models of professionalism, the image-management or licensing model and the authentic model, and concludes that the difference lies in professional ethics. The paper concludes that universities have an important role to play in educating students to understand and develop individual professional virtues; if performed well, this role will ultimately affect both journalism and PR as professions.

Dunn et al., A. (2012). Open letter in response to the the article ‘Finklestein report: media’s great divide’ and editorial ‘It depends who you talk to’. The Australian.
Dworznik, G. and M. Grubb (2007). “Preparing for the worst: making a case for trauma training in the journalism classroom.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(62): 190-210.

This study is an attempt to build support for including trauma training in the journalism classroom. Qualitative interviews with students who covered a

death-penalty murder trial and results from a quantitative survey of journalism students are combined to show that preparing students for the emotional reac- tions they may experience while covering the news is not only needed but want- ed by the students themselves. Implications and directions for future research arealso discussed.

Erstad, O., et al. (2007). “Re‐mixing multimodal resources: multiliteracies and digital production in Norwegian media education.” Learning, Media and Technology 32(2): 183-198.

Youngsters are increasingly using digital technologies through participation in informal settings. Schools, however, seem to be struggling with implementing digital technologies into formal school activities. With the impact of digital technologies, media education can be seen as an increasingly important ‘transactional learning space’ between school-based education and leisure activities among youth. Our analysis in this article is grounded in the framework of media learning and multi- literacies, focusing particularly on the re-mixing of available semiotic resources downloaded from the Internet. We are interested in media production as a key defining component of the Norwegian media curriculum, especially how digital media and the Internet create new affordances that affect how students work on creative media production. We analyse interactional data from two school settings and discuss some of the implications of the main findings for broader current issues in Norwegian education, with an emphasis on digital literacy.

Este, J., et al. (2010). Life in the clickstream II: The future of journalism C. Warren, The Media, Entertainment & Arts Alliance.
Flew, T. (2011). “Is journalism best located in the creative arts or as a communication discipline?” Australian Journalism Review 31(1): 31-35.
Flew, T. and J. Sternberg (1999). “Media Wars: media studies and journalsim education.” Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy 90: 9-13.
Forde, S., et al. (2003). “Through the lens of the local: public arena journalism in the Australian community broadcasting sector.” Journalism 4(3): 314-335.

This article explores the role of community or ‘public arena’ journalism in offering alternative frameworks for making sense of the world through the lens of local communities and their various networks. Our particular focus is on new research into Australia’s unique community broadcasting sector, based on nationwide telephone surveys and focus group discussions involving a broad range of community journalists, which suggests that they fulfil an important cultural role in providing communities with a local voice through what we have termed a ‘community public sphere’.

Fortunati, L. and M. Sarrica (2010). “The future of the press: insights from the sociotechnical approach.” The Information Society: An International Journal 26(4): 247-255.

In Europe and the United States, the decline of newspapers started long before the advent of the Internet. However, the spread of the Internet has accelerated this decline. But is the future of newspapers really endangered? To answer this question, the au- thors propose that a reflection on the insights the sociotechnical system perspective, drawn from organizational studies, can offer for media research. The authors first analyze four of the main prin- ciples of the sociotechnical perspective: open systems, dynamic sta- bility, optimization of technical and social functions, and control of boundaries. They then employ these analytical tools to examine the power relationships between journalists, the publishers, edi- tors, and the audiences. The sociotechnical approach proves to be an interesting approach for the interpretation of the changes occur- ring in the journalism and for the elaboration of future solutions and management strategies.

Franklin, B. (2008). “The future of newspapers.” Journalism Practice 2(3): 306-317.
Gaber, I. (2009). “Them and us: is there a difference?” British Journalism Review 20(1): 41-46.
Gade, P. (2009). The structural integration of news media organisations: opening the processes of journalism beyond the newsroom.
George, C. (2011). “Beyond professionalisation: a radical broadening of journalism education.” Journalism and Mass Communication 66(3): 257-267.

Journalism as a practical program in universities has grown in tandem with the professionalization of journalism, so much so that journalism education and professionalization are sometimes treated as synonymous. This association is ripe for critical review. With an increasing amount of journalism being practiced outside of professional news organizations,pragmatic reasons suggest widening the scope of practical journalism education to include semi-professional and non-professional forms. Principled reasons also support such a move. Inspired by Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the practice of jour- nalism can be properly thought of as a human right belonging to “everyone.” Therefore, practical journalism education should be something more than a pro- duction line for professional news workers. The need to go beyond professional- ization is especially poignant in Singapore, where this essay is grounded. The consolidation of Singapore’s hegemonic, soft-authoritarian regime has arguably been aided by press professionalization. While some aspects of professionalism, such as its emphasis on autonomy and editorial integrity, are supportive of press freedom and democracy, professionalization has also been associated with two trends-commercialization and political detachment-that make the news media more easily co-opted by the state. This double-edged effect of profession- alization compels a re-think among educators who may have too hastily reject- ed non-professional and semi-professional forms of journalism as worthy of their promotion.

Giles, R., H (2010). “New economic models for U.S. journalism.” Daedalus 139(2): 26-38.
Graham, G. and J. Hill (2009). “The British newspaper industry supply chain in the digital age.” Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation 27(2): 117-124.

Newspapers are operating in increasingly competitive and fragmented markets for audiences and advertising revenues, government media policy and changing audience requirements for news and the ways in which it is presented and delivered. A growing army of bloggers and amateur citizen journalists now delivers—but rarely edits—content for all media platforms, while new media technologies, combined with the changing structure of global news industries, are changing radically the ways in which newspapers and media business functions and struggles for profitability. Our research sought to answer the question of how the Internet is impacting on different value activities in the newspaper industry supply chain. To answer these questions, 15 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted at three regional news- papers in the Manchester area. The findings showed that in spite of initial fear and rejection, the Internet is now firmly embedded in newspaper industry supply chain operations. Firms are now using the Internet as an operant resource and working proactively with consumers to develop various forms of relationship value. We highlight the role of consumers in the creation of news (editorial) content and consumer-driven moves toward a merged media platform of distribution (including television, online, mobile and printed forms). Newspapers will probably survive if they supply an ‘elite’ service to a leadership news audience. This will be in the form of ‘hybrid’ content: analysis, interpretation and investigative reporting in a print product that appears less than daily combined with constant updating and reader interaction on the Web.

Green, K. (2003). “The need to synthesise industry academy ambitions.” Pacific Journalism Review 9: 160-169.

JOURNALISM education in Australia,as it seems in New Zealand, finds itself between a rock and a hard place. On the one hand universities find themselves under pressure to provide courses that meet industry demands and enhance job success rates; on the other hand journalists seek to be recognised as professionals for a wide range of reasons. Among those reasons is the desire to raise the credibility of journalism in the public perception and the need to argue for higher rates of pay and improved conditions. Can the tension between the twin urges to professionalise and to react to market forces be accommodated in journalism education in Australia? And do those two urges have to be mutually exclusive? Journalism — in Australia at least — is under pressure to professionalise for two reasons: First, employers believe that credibility is a major issue in the continuing battle to halt the circulation decline; second, journalists themselves perceive the path to greater remuneration lies through professionalisation.

Harcup, T. (2006). “”I’m doing this to change the world”: journalism in alternative and mainstream media.” Journalism Studies 6(3): 361-374.

Journalism practised within alternative media has typically been understood as being entirely different to, and separate from, journalism practised within mainstream media. However, in recent years, such ‘‘binary opposition’’ has been rejected by a number of authors who argue that there may be more crossover of media practice than has previously been acknowledged. By the means of an exploratory empirical study, utilising qualitative research methods, this article examines the extent of this potential crossover of both practice and personnel between journalism conducted in alternative and mainstream media. The study provides some empirical evidence to support the contention that there can be movement along what might be termed a continuum of journalistic practice. The article concludes by suggesting that consideration of the perspectives of ‘‘hybrid’’ practitioners, who have a range of journalistic experiences across alternative and mainstream media, can inform our understanding of journalism itself.

Harcup, T. (2011). “Hackademics at the Chalkface: to what extent have journalism teachers become journalism researchers.” Journalism Practice 5(1): 34-50.

The field of journalism studies is growing globally, and the training of journalists is increasingly conducted within higher education institutions at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, even in countries that previously eschewed university education of journalists. Journalism studies goes beyond the training and education of journalists to encompass scholarly inquiry into journalism. Much teaching of journalism within universities is now conducted by journalists who have switched to the academy and become known as ‘‘hackademics’’. This article explores the extent to which such journalists-turned-journalism-educators also contribute to a deeper understanding of journalism by engaging in scholarly research. It is based on an empirical study of 65 hackademics in the United Kingdom and Ireland, whose experiences of academic research into journalism will be discussed within the context of the international literature.

Harcup, T. (2011). “Alternative Journalism as active citizenship.” Journalism 12(1): 15-31.

This article explores relationships between alternative forms of journalism and political concepts such as democracy and citizenship; in the process of doing so, it explores the role and purpose of alternative media. By means of an exploratory empirical study, utilizing qualitative research methods with a sample group of alternative media practitioners within the UK, the article discusses differing concepts of alternative media, paying particular attention to the journalistic methods and outputs of such media and the ways in which they can be seen as supportive of citizenship.The findings are discussed within the context of the work of international scholars on issues such as alternative media and democratic participation.The article concludes that, although a precise and universal definition of alternative media remains elusive, there appears to be a considerable degree of agreement amongst practitioners and scholars of alternative journalism alike that such media can play a role in reflecting, nurturing and demonstrating what can be identified as active citizenship.

Harrington, S. (2008). “Popular news in the 21st century Time for a new critical approach?” Journalism 9(3): 266-284.
Henningham, J. (1994). “A suggested core curriculum in journalsim edcuation.” Australian Journalism Review 16(1): 88-93.
Henningham, J. (1999). “Proud to be a journalism educator.” Australian Journalism Review 21(3): 181-196.
Herbert, J. (2002). “Just think of it as peer review: Industry accreditation will proetct the future.” Australian Journalism Review 24(2): 173-186.

One of the biggest challenges facing journalism education in Australia is the thorny subjecI of accreditation. But why should it be a challenge? No one should question the need for the best possible, and possibly new, approach to journalism education, to cope with the rapidly changing face of print and broadcast news gathering and dissemination, which is why it is increasingly important to involve the industry. And the best way of doing that is through some form of industry accredita- tion or recognition of our courses. The UK has such an arrange- ment; the United States has such an arrangement. Australia needs such an arrangement. Indeed, it could become the focus of an AustralasianlPacific process for the good of journalism education, as well as for the good of the students and the future professionalisation of the industry. And it can be a better system than accreditation schemes which operate elsewhere. This arti- cle looks at what happens in some other places and then pro- poses something that might suit us and our particular local Australasian conditions and circumstances.

Herbert, J. (2005). “East Meets West: refocusing communication and journalism education.” Media Educator (16): 33-40.
Hermida, A. (2010). “Twittering the news: the emergence of ambient journalism.” Journalism and News 4(3): 297-308.

This paper examines new para-journalism forms such as micro-blogging as ‘‘awareness systems’’ that provide journalists with more complex ways of understanding and reporting on the subtleties of public communication. Traditional journalism defines fact as information and quotes from official sources, which have been identified as forming the vast majority of news and information content. This model of news is in flux, however, as new social media technologies such as Twitter facilitate the instant, online dissemination of short fragments of information from a variety of official and unofficial sources. This paper draws from computer science literature to suggest that these broad, asynchronous, lightweight and always-on systems are enabling citizens to maintain a mental model of news and events around them, giving rise to awareness systems that the paper describes as ambient journalism. The emergence of ambient journalism brought about by the use of these new digital delivery systems and evolving communications protocols raises significant research questions for journalism scholars and professionals. This research offers an initial exploration of the impact of awareness systems on journalism norms and practices. It suggests that one of the future directions for journalism may be to develop approaches and systems that help the public negotiate and regulate the flow of awareness information, facilitating the collection and transmission of news.

Hess, K. and L. Walker (2010). “Teaching journalism students and regional reporters how to work with cultural diversity.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(20): 137-152.

This paper examines the effectiveness of a set of curriculum materials developed for a Reporting Diversity and Integration Project tailored for Australian journalists and journalism students. The materials take a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to a hypothetical case study that involves Muslim netballers being banned from competition because they want to wear headscarves during play. Deferring to ideas developed by Russian psychologist, Leo Vygotsky, we proposed a few ‘scaffolding’ strategies to support student learning.The material was trialed with 30 first-year Deakin University journalism students and 30 regional journalists.The responses showed that both groups felt the materials we added to the curriculum resources, which provided information on Muslim women and the headscarf, affected how they would write the story. They also thought it was important to provide this kind of information for readers. This paper argues that providing cultural information in an accessible format for students and journalists in newsrooms should be integral to education and training materials designed to improve media coverage of cultural diversity issues.

Hirst, M. (2010). “Journalism Education “Down Under”: A tale of two paradigms.” Journalism Studies 11(1): 83-98.

Journalism studies is currently undergoing one of the periodic renovations that is characteristic of an active and diverse community of scholars. This paper examines aspects of this renewal debate among journalism scholars by focusing on the situation in Australia and New Zealand. It argues that the debate ‘‘Down Under’’ mirrors global differences on the issues of ‘‘theory’’ and ‘‘practice’’ in journalism education and that an understanding of the key fault lines in this context can provide useful insights into the wider arguments. In Australia and New Zealand a key area of discussion is around attitudes towards the concept of professionalism in the practice, training and scholarship of journalism. These tensions are apparent in both the news media and in the academy. The contradictory positions of those who favour greater industry involvement in curriculum matters, including accreditation of courses, and those who are less sanguine about the normative influence of industry on critical scholarship are explored in relation to differing attitudes to professionalism and the political economy of news production. The paper concludes that rather than pegging the debate to an unstable definition of professionalism, journalism educators should instead focus more on journalism scholarship founded on a political economy approach.

Hirst, M. and G. Treadwell (2011). “Blog bother me.” Journalism Practice 5(4): 446-461.

This paper grew out of the authors’ interest in updating the journalism curriculum at AUT (Aukland University of Technology) to better reflect the impact of online media, including social media, on the work of journalists. The challenge for journalism educators is to remain relevant in rapidly changing news and education environments. Our study suggests that while the vast majority of students have some engagement with social media, particularly social networking, and are aware that it can be a powerful tool for journalists, they are still not entirely comfortable with its techniques and they are not experimenting with social media as a production platform as much as we first thought. In short, it appears that they do not have command of professional fluency with social media tools. In response to these findings we have begun to introduce some social media tools and processes directly into the units we teach, in particular: digital story-telling techniques; the use of Twitter and location-based applications; encouraging the ethical use of Facebook etc. for sourcing stories and talent for interviews; podcasting, soundslides and video for the Web, Dreamweaver, InDesign and PHP-based content management systems. We do not see the work to date as the end-point of the changes that we know are necessary, but we are acutely aware of the limitations (structural, institutional and financial) that suggest we should continue with this small-steps approach for the foreseeable future.

Hodgson, P. and D. Wong (2011). “Developing professional skills in journalism through blogs.” Assessment & Evauluation in Higher Education 36(2): 197-211.

The curriculum for journalism is being forced to change because the traditional print-based and broadcast modes are being challenged by wide and easy access to online mass communication. Primarily, students need to develop proficiency in writing, editing and publishing. However, they are also expected to be skilled in the Web medium as they venture into their careers, and weblogs offer a dynamic platform to develop these skills. Based on a statistical summary of student comments on the performance criteria for a blog project, a focus group interview and survey results, this paper will discuss the findings from the introduction of a course-based blog to an undergraduate course in Hong Kong, including: (1) the technical challenge of making Web features; (2) the perception of proficiency in online publishing; (3) the evaluative skills developed through a peer-review process; and (4) the development of a learning community through writing in blogs.

Hollerbach, K. and B. Mims (2007). “Choosing wisely: a comparison of online, televised, and face-to-face instructional methods on knowledge acquisition of broadcast audience concepts.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 62(2): 176-189.

Selecting an appropriate course content delivery method is a challenge educators face. Are online, televised, and face-to-face forms of instruction equally effective? Is any method superior in fostering knowledge acquisition? An experiment using students from three sections of a mass communication survey course utilized these instructional methods to teach students about radio audience measurement. Evaluations of the pre- and post-test results indicate that significant student knowledge acquisition occurred through exposure to all of the instructional methods. No method was found to be superior. Thus, this study demonstrated the viability of all three methods.

Howley, K. (2003). “A poverty of voices: street papers as communicative democracy.” Journalism 4(3): 273-292.

The 1990s witnessed two distinct but related trends in journalism: the rise of public journalism and the emergence of street newspapers. This article contrasts public journalism and street newspapers in an effort to explicate the distinguishing features of each. In doing so, it illuminates the distinctions between liberal-minded media reform movements, such as public journalism, and far more radical alternatives to journalistic practice as represented by street newspapers. Throughout it is argued that street papers are a unique form of communicative democracy. In their capacity as the voice of the poor, street newspapers seek to critically engage the reading public in ongoing deliberations over fundamental issues of economic, social and political justice. A brief assessment of Street Feat – a street newspaper in Halifax, Nova Scotia – provides an empirical basis for this discussion.

Huang, E., et al. (2006). “Bridging newsrooms and classrooms: preparing the next generation of journalists for converged media.” Journalism and Communication Monographs(8): 221-262.

Edgar Huang (Ph.D.,Indiana University,1999)is an associate professor in the New Media Program under the School of Informatics, Indiana University- Purdue University Indianapolis. His articles on media convergence, copy- right issues, online journalism, digital imaging, documentary photography, and the Internet and national development are seen in Convergence, Journalism and Communication Monographs, Visual Communication Quarterly, IT for Development, etc. The rest of the authors were graduate stu- dents of the Department of Journalism and Media Studies, University of South Florida St. Petersburg at the time of the study. The authors thank Andrew Meacham, Javier Molinos, and William Graveley for their involve- ment in the data collecting for this study and also the anonymous Monographs reviewers for their insights.

Hubbard, G. T., et al. (2011). “Social Identity and Convergence : News Faculty and Student Perspectives on Web, Print, and Broadcast Skills.” Electronic News 5(1): 20-40.

This research examines the role of intergroup bias in mass communication students and faculty perceptions of the importance of various media technology skills. This study differs from previous research because it compares the views of both print journalism and broadcasting students and faculty about media skills and convergence. A scale of social identity pinpoints a relationship between social psychology and attitudes about media skills. A weak negative correlation between the absolute value of the print-minus-broadcast skills-preference variable and web- skills preferences among all mass communication student and faculty participants was found, and the correlation strengthened when only broadcast students and faculty were analyzed, indicating that those inclined toward broadcasting were more likely to prefer traditional mass media skills training over cross-platform, new media, and Internet skills. Broadcast students and faculty also differed from other participants in how their preferences for the skills of their own profession relate to their openness

Hubbard, G. T., et al. (2011). “Social identity and convergence: news faculty and student perspectives on web, print and broadcast skills.” Electronic News 5(1): 20-40.

This research examines the role of intergroup bias in mass communication students and faculty perceptions of the importance of various media technology skills. This study differs from previous research because it compares the views of both print journalism and broadcasting students and faculty about media skills and convergence. A scale of social identity pinpoints a relationship between social psychology and attitudes about media skills. A weak negative correlation between the absolute value of the print-minus-broadcast skills-preference variable and web- skills preferences among all mass communication student and faculty participants was found, and the correlation strengthened when only broadcast students and faculty were analyzed, indicating that those inclined toward broadcasting were more likely to prefer traditional mass media skills training over cross-platform, new media, and Internet skills. Broadcast students and faculty also differed from other participants in how their preferences for the skills of their own profession relate to their openness to nontraditional media skills. Students reported a greater preference for skills training than faculty did. Comparisons of students and faculty preferences for print, broadcast, and web skills showed strong, statistically significant differences, with students rating all skills more highly than faculty did.

Huber-Humes, S. (2007) The real who, what, where, when and why of journalism. Chronicle of Higher Education 53,

DURING the 2005-6 academic year, I taught journalism at a large, public university, where I also served as the adviser for its large-circulation student newspaper. I wondered then and I wonder now whether we are equipping students to become the kind of thoughtful, creative reporters we need to help us make sense of an increasingly chaotic world.

Huckeba, K. L. (2010). Confronting convergence: Are higher education administrators using a strategic planning approach to mass communication curriculum convergence. Radio, Television & Film. Texas, University of North Texas. Master of Arts: 59.

Professors in mass communications departments of higher education institutions continue to search for the best way to prepare graduates for the ever-changing world of print, broadcast, and online media. Business administration theories have long been used in other areas, including education. While some application of strategic planning has been documented with regards to education, there is not much to reference in this area. The study investigated the use of strategic planning in developing a course of action for curriculum convergence in mass communication programs. The study used a purposive sample to determine if administrators are utilizing this method as a part of curriculum convergence. The results indicated a use of this method among institutions involved in curriculum convergence.

Hunter, A. and F. P. Nel (2011). “Equipping the entrepreneurial journalist: An exercise in creative enterprise.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator(66): 9-24.
Huntsberger, M. and A. Stavitsky (2006). “The new podagogy: Incorporating podcasting into journalism education.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 61(4): 397-410.

Based on a survey of 209 undergraduate students, the study reports high levels of usage and satisfaction with content and delivery, and suggests the technology added value to class content for students.

Iyer, P. (2010). “Commentary: The intellectual component in best practices of journalism.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(20): 23-31.

Historically, the key questions facing journalism curriculum designers are: Should journalism education be about imparting a set of skills or the preparation of a philosophical mind infused with a spirit of inquiry? Is it about a way of doing or a way of knowing? The news industry have found the answers in a way that give them control over the education – or rather, the training – of journalists. Many organizations have set up their own “news universities” as have many teams of “retired” journalists.These in- house learning centres typically have experienced journalists at the helm designing curriculum and enrolling their own journalists into training programs.An example is News College, set up by News Limited to train its journalists in editing, reporting and legal vetting of stories. Dedicated training institutes comprising experienced journalists have also made the outsourcing of training tasks easier for the industry.An example is the Poynter Institute in Florida, which runs many short-term courses for the benefit of practising journalists.The intention is to upgrade the practical abilities of journalists in the essential tasks of content production, whether it relates to text or images.

Jarvis, J. (2007). What the news business needs most today. The Guardian.

As a journalism professor, I’m asked two questions these days: first, why teach journalism? Aren’t newspapers and news doomed? Why ensnare young people in a dying profession? I respond with an article of faith: journalism is evolving – at long last – and actually growing, and that’s what makes this an exciting time to get into the news business. Second, I’m asked, how should you teach journalism today? Ah, that’s the tough one. I’m still in search of the answer as I finish my first term at the new City University of New York Graduate School of Journalism.

Johnston, J. (2007). “Turning the inverted pyramid upside down: how Australian print media is learning to love the narrative.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(18): 1-15.

Print journalism has long embraced the inverted pyramid, that writing style which emerged in the latter part of the 19th century. While still a popular option, other styles are moving in to share the narrative writing in two Australian daily papers. Over a period of one month during April-May 2007, the style of news in the front pages of The Australian and The Sydney Morning Herald was analysed to determine how much were written in the inverted pyramid and how much were in narrative format or a mix of styles. The research also examines The Australian’s ‘Inside Story’ a regular feature which includes elements of literary journalism, bringing together a strong narrative style with a serious investigation in the news pages of the weekend, and occasionally weekday, paper. This analysis features insights from the writers, editors and creators of ‘Inside Story’, which has been running for almost a decade. Finally, the paper provides a brief overview of some undergraduate journalism and media text books in Australia to determine the dominant paradigms in university journalism curriculum and how these might have changed in recent years. It suggests why narrative news might be a popular option for the future as newspapers are repositioned within the expanding sea of media options.

Josephi, B. (2004). “Desired attributes for young journalists.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(15): 99-114.
Kang, S. K. J. G. (2010). “Electronic media curricula of colleges and univesrities in twelve countries: transition, integration and convergence of media instruction in the digital era.” International Journal of Instructional Media 37(1): 5-18.
Kaye, J. and S. Quinn (2010). Funding journalism in the digital age: business models, strategies and trends.
Kelly, D. (2011). “The public policy pedagogy of corporate and alternative news media.” Student Philosophy Education(30): 185-198.

This paper argues for seeing in-depth news coverage of political, social, and economic issues as ‘‘public policy pedagogy.’’ To develop my argument, I draw on Nancy Fraser’s democratic theory, which attends to social differences and does not assume that unity is a starting point or an end goal of public dialogue. Alongside the formation of ‘‘subaltern counterpublics’’ (Fraser), alternative media outlets sometimes develop. There, members of alternative publics debate their interests and strategize about how to be heard in wider, mass-mediated public arenas. I address the normative implications of this non- unitary, multiple-publics model for news journalism, analyzing how current conventions in mainstream news journalism (e.g., ‘‘balance’’ defined as ‘‘airing two extremes’’) can restrict public debate and impoverish the public policy pedagogy on offer. I illustrate my arguments with a case study of media coverage of the creation and implementation of a social justice curriculum in British Columbia, Canada.

King, E. (2008). “The role of journalism history, and the academy, in the development of core knowledge in journalism education.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 63(2): 166-178.
King, S. (2010). “The Carnegie-Knight Initiative on the Future of Journalism Education: improving how journalists are educated & how their audiences are informed.” Daedelus Spring.
Kirkpatrick, R. (1996). “Diploma to degree: 75 years of tertiary journalism studies.” Australian Journalism Review(5): 256-264.

When journalism studies began at the University of Queensland 75 years ago, they comprised the first cer- tificated tertiary course in Australia. Initially, journal- ism studies focused, however, on anything but journalism. They were for journalists rather than about journalism, despite the fact that they resulted from an initiative of journalists. The evolution of journalism studies from diploma to degree at the University of Queensland is traced in this paper.

Kitch, C. (2009). “The afterlife of print.” Journalism 10(3): 340-342.
Kolandai-Matchett, K., et al. (2012). “Sustainability in journalism education: assessment of a trial module in New Zealand.” Applied Environmental Education and Communication 8(3-4): 204-215.

News media reporting on sustainability and environmental (S&E) issues is seen as a form of informal environmental education. For journalists to play such an educative role, prior education on these topics appears necessary. By assessing a trial introductory-level journalism module on sustainability, this case study strengthens the argument for the inclusion of sustainability in journalism curricula as necessary for improving media coverage of related issues. A one-group pre-experimental evaluation illustrated immediate impacts of the module on students’ understanding of sustainability and their interest in reporting related issues. Unintended impacts were their realization that sustainability was a topic that could be incorporated in various news areas, and their increased sensitivity to the need for enhanced media coverage of sustainability in order to enhance public awareness. In addition, a longer-term assessment showed the potential for impact on students’ work outputs as journalists. However, our study also finds that only two institutions in New Zealand offer distinct journalism courses on S&E topics. This indicates the need for a restructuring of journalism curricula. This study provided insights into an important area for development in journalism education and identifies issues that may assist the development of future journalism courses on sustainability.

Koutsoukos, C. and F. Biggins (2010). Putting the “i” into journalism education: The why and the how of the re-working of the journalism curriculum at the University of Newcastle, University of Newscastle.

In a provocative and timely essay, Picard (2009) contended journalists must “adapt or die”; they can no longer do what they have always done. He also suggested that journalists deserve low pay because “wages are compensation for value creation” and “journalists simply aren’t creating much value these days”. The migration of advertising to online publications and the fragmentation of the mass audience—occurring inside a global financial crisis—have perhaps forever decimated heritage commercial media and industrial journalism. Websites such as newspaperdeathwatch.com provide regular obituaries for broadsheets and tabloids in the advanced industrial societies, while claiming that the death of the newspaper will provide for the rebirth of journalism; but what sort of journalism? The journalists no longer control “the story” that was always part of a newspaper or a bulletin (Marsh, 2009). “Search engines and news aggregators have ripped that bundle apart.” The audience wants in. So what skills will practitioners require and how can that be reflected in the university curriculum? This paper examines and analyses the process of the re-design of the journalism major at the University of Newcastle in 2009. It asks: what skills will students need to enter this brave new world of digital journalism? What does the changing value of journalism mean for graduates entering the field? It also considers the risks of making assumptions about students’ level of technical engagement and their career aspirations. The re-design must recognise that few students will work as industrial journalists, confined to a single medium. They will need to be multi-skilled and able to work across multiple platforms in a converged media industry. So, just what should students be learning? Is the medium the message? Should academic staff be Facebooking their students’ feedback and twittering their marks, or marking their Facebooks and giving feedback on their twitters?

Lemann, N. (2009) Journalism schools can push coverage beyond breaking news. Chronicle of Higher Education 56,

In the minds of most journalists, the work we do is indispensable, and has always been indispensable, to the successful operation of a democratic society. A democracy requires an informed public, which journalism generates, and because we monitor the performance of government, we ensure that it honestly and capably serves the people. Journalism schools often have rhetoric to that effect emblazoned on their walls–certainly ours does. We’re here to train the future bearers of our democratic function and to do what we can to nudge the current bearers to do a better job.

Lewis, S. (2009). “Educating journalists for the 21st century: Constructing a student multimedia environment.” The International Journal of Learning 16(5): 101-109.

This paper is a case study of the multimedia/converged media newsroom at Abilene Christian University. The multimedia newsroom designer created a space in which students are able to apply to student media products the theories and praxes they are discussing in the traditional classroom. Just as many professional news organizations move toward more converged environments, media educators must provide opportunities for students to learn in such environments. Through an exploration of constructivist learning theory and professional industry standards, the designer of the multimedia newsroom at Abilene Christian University gained an understanding of cognitive development and how it relates to learning, as well as professional practices and expectations for graduates. The multimedia newsroom comprises the print, broadcast and online student media products. Each of the products is a part of the whole — each providing its unique advantages to the coverage of a story. Students produce media in an environment that cultivates collaboration between faculty and students and among peers in a technologically advanced facility. The goal of the multimedia newsroom is to provide student learning opportunities in a progressive media environment that is functional, attractive and supports the curriculum. In addition to fostering understanding and respect among the staffs of different students media outlets, the newsroom has created a synergistic learning environment by providing opportunities for students to observe and participate in each other’s processes since it opened in January 2008.

Lewis, S. C. (2012). “From journalism to information: the transformation of the Knight Foundation and news innovation.” Mass Communication and Society 15(309-334).

Amid the digital disruption for journalism, the U.S.-based Knight Foundation has made a highly publicized effort to shape the nature of news innovation. This growing influence raises questions about what it is trying to accomplish for mass communication and society. This qualitative case study shows how and why the Knight Foundation has sought to change journalism by renego- tiating its boundaries. Namely, by downplaying its own historical emphasis on professionalism, the foundation has embraced openness to outside influence— for example, the wisdom of the crowd, citizen participation, and a broader definition of ‘‘news.’’ These rhetorical adaptations have paralleled material changes in the foundation’s funding process, typified by the Knight News Challenge innovation contest. In recent times, the foundation has undergone a further evolution from ‘‘journalism’’ to ‘‘information.’’ By highlighting its boundary-spanning interest in promoting ‘‘information’’ for communities, the Knight Foundation has been able to expand its capital and influence as an agent of change among fields and funders beyond journalism.

Lin, M. (2012). Multimedia journalism and social media journalism: A journalism instructor’s observation and thoughts. Multimedia journalism and social media journalism: A journalism instructor’s observation and thoughts.

As a journalism instructor, I have a great interest in teaching multiplatform or multimedia journalism courses. This blog was started as a resource center for my students, providing for them various resources and addressing some basic questions students may have about multimedia journalism and new media. This blog also chronicles my thoughts on multimedia journalism education. More and more universities are offering multimedia journalism in their curriculum – a few new courses, a new concentration, or a new degree program. Unlike the more or less uniform conventional journalism education, multimedia journalism is being taught in different ways at different schools. Started in March 2012, my compilation of multimedia journalism degree programs attracts a regular stream of visitors via word of mouth and social networks. This project tries to answer two basic questions journalism educators may have: which schools are offering multimedia journalism, and how are they teaching it? Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are now hot topics among the media professionals. This blog also discusses the industry trends and, more importantly, how journalism educators can incorporate social media into their curriculum.

Little, J. and M. Snakey (2007). “Teaching narrative journalism and the APN News and Media Professional Development Program.” Asia Pacific Media Educator(18): 113-124.

This paper extends the familiar concept of ‘journalism-as-storytelling’ into a description of some of its practical applications in a university and industry partnership resulting in a commercial training arrangement in early 2007. It describes the APN/USQ Professional Development Program journalism courses may be adapted to teach narrative writing techniques. It demonstrates how foundation skills in journalistic practice may be incorporated into an adapted teaching model, suggesting that “the basics” of narrative writing should not be thought of as discrete components of journalism education. This argument is further supported by the description of a robust pedagogical approach informed by Mezirows’ transformative learning theory for a cross-disciplinary knowledge base.

Longinow, M. A. (2011) Reforming J101: Fire in the Hole: Curricular Explosion, Fearless Journalism Pedagogy, and Media Convergence.
Loo, E. (2010). “Back to basics in journalism education amid the techno hype.” Asia Pacific Media Educator(20): 1-7.

Dominating the discourse among journalism educators in the early ‘90s was how the internet would ‘revolutionise’ journalism practices, how newspapers would see its end days with readers turning to online news sites, and thus, the need to revamp traditional journalism curriculum and focus on ‘new media technologies’.Today, however, the smell and feel of newsprint is as pervasive as it was in 1991 during the days of the Netscape beta and HTML markups. Which reminds me of a remark by John C. Merrill, professor emeritus at the Missouri School of Journalism, at the AEJMC panel discussion I attended in Boston on August 8, 2009. With more than 60 years of writing about journalism, and teaching it, he said:“Twitter, new media etc – are they over-rated? So what? Journalism educators need to be mindful of the values that come with good journalism – investigate, public service, build communities, values, story-telling. What we hear today is change, change, change (in relation to new media). Maybe what we have now (traditional media) is good enough, just focus on making it better.”

Lowrey, W., et al. (2005). “Predictors of convergence curricula in journalism and mass communication programs.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(60): 32-46.

This study is an attempt to understand the mechanism driving programs of journalism and mass communication to converge media sequences. The study also describes the extent and variation of these changes. Findings from a national survey show that a majority of programs are at least experimenting with convergence, though most are also maintaining specialized tracks in some form. Findings also suggest that faculty perceptions of industry changes explain movement away from a sole reliance on separate tracks, but small program size and lack of accreditation are more important in explaining the decision to merge sequences.

Lum, L. (2004). “The cross-training of future journalists.” Black Issues in Higher Education 21(11): 30-33.
Lumby, C. (1999). “Genre anxiety in the postmodern public sphere.” Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy 90: 35-42.

This paper examines the r(}(/ts of contemporanj concerns about the infllience of poststructumlist theories and aligned disciplines such as cultural studies on media stl/dies, exemplified here by Keith WindschuttIe’s attack on the latter. Rather than taking detailed issue with WindscllUttle’s attack on critical theory, I tXRmine the roots o f wlwt, J argue, is an anxiety about the shifting boundaries between conventional institutional and discursive arenas. Far from identifying a schism between academic and professional practice in media studies, 1 argue that recent developments in botll fitlds have fostered a Jar ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ rtlationship between tile two arenas, and tlult if is precisely this proximity which is engendering anxiety among some commentators.

Luther, C. R. L. C. A. (2006). “The incorporation of terrorism coverage in academic journalism programs.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 61(4): 361-377.

This research explores the degree to which journalism programs in the United States have incorporated the subject of terrorism into their curricula. An analysis of journalism and mass communication schools revealed that only a few programs had created journalism courses focusing specifically on terrorism. Those courses established under these programs were quite comprehensive in nature. Potential reasons why more programs have not created terrorism-related journalism courses are discussed

MacDonald, I. (2006). “Teaching journalists to save the profession.” Journalism Studies 7(5): 745-764.

Concerns about the media industries prioritizing profits over public service has historically given rise to proposals for a more professional model of journalism education (Commission on Freedom of the Press, 1947; Pulitzer, 1904; Royal Commission on Newspapers, 1981). In the context of neoliberal restructuring and a ‘‘professional crisis’’ in journalism, there have again been proposals for journalism education to help uplift professional journalistic values (Adam, 2001; Bollinger, 2003; Carnegie Corporation, 2005a; Sauvageau, 2004). This paper offers a critique of these recent journalism education reform proposals. While the proponents of professionalizing journalism schools acknowledge the structural and economic changes that are the culprits of the professional crisis in journalism, they place the onus of the solution on journalists, and they propose a model of journalism education that encourages students to refrain from critically analysing the media industries. The advocates of professional journalism schools also hark back to traditional journalistic ideals and notions of objectivity which some critics argue contributes to public apathy and damages prospects for participatory democracy. This paper will conclude by exploring recent proposals for a critical journalism pedagogy, which overcomes some of the problems of the professional reform model (Atton, 2003; Skinner et al., 2001).

Mangan, K. (2007). “A J-School adapts to the market.” Chronicle of Higher Education 53(49).

A controversial new curriculum unveiled this month at one of the nation’s leading journalism schools is sparking heated debate over the role that marketing and technology should play in the education of future reporters and broadcasters. At a time when newspaper circulations are steadily declining and many readers are bouncing from blogs to Internet video to get their news, Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism will send student reporters out into the field with video iPods and digital camcorders, as well as spiral notebooks. The most controversial change, though, is the increased emphasis on “audience understanding.” This fall, lessons in audience behavior and motivation will be taught alongside drills in crafting leads and meeting deadlines. Students will even be encouraged to connect with readers by writing out of storefront newsrooms in diverse Chicago neighborhoods.

Mapes, J. (2009). J-School Reform: Changes at Scripps For Today and Tomorrow, Ohio University.

As Ohio University switches from quarters to semesters by 2012, the E.W. Scripps School of Journalism is forced to re-examine its curriculum. Simultaneously, the worldwide journalistic community turns to digital media to change the way journalists play the game. “J-School Reform: Changes at Scripps for Today and Tomorrow” explores alternations to existing Ohio University J-School classes that can be made right now to accurately reflect the changing media landscape, as well as what can be done as curriculum changes are made. By comparing the curriculum at other top American J-Schools and featuring commentary from media professionals and students, J-School Reform investigates current educational trends and evaluates what skills will best prepare students for journalism careers after graduation.

Martin, F. (2008). State of the News Print Media in Australia, Australian Press Council.
Masse, M. H. and M. N. Popovich (2007). “Accredited and nonaccredited media writing programs are stagnant, resistant to reform, and similar.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 62(2): 141-160.

A journalism program’s accreditation status is arguably a factor in institutional reputation and student recruitment. Researchers were interested in exploring any differences in media writing course pedagogy between accredited and nonaccredited journalism programs. A secondary objective was to assess evi- dence of curriculum innovation in light of emerging issues, such as conver- gence and cross-platform media writing instruction. A comprehensive national study of media writing instructors revealed that accredited and nonaccredited schools are similar in their approaches to the teaching of media writing, that writing courses are structured similarly, and that faculty qualifications and fac- ulty attitudes toward media writing are very similar. While highlighting the need for continued innovation in the teaching of writing, the study reveals evi- dence of systemic resistance to curriculum reform, notably in accredited pro- grams, where ACEJMC standards may limit creative educational approaches.

Massey, B. L. (2010). “What job advertisments tell us about demand for multiplatform reporters at Legacy news outlets.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 65(2): 142-155.

Competing propositions about labor-market demand for multiplatform reporters were tested in a content analysis of job advertisements from newspapers and TV news stations. Findings suggest a modest market demand for some multiplatform skills, most apparent among newspapers that sought reporters cross-skilled at news videography. Demand also was strong for reporters as specialists in print or broadcast. Implications for journalism curricula and contemporary conceptions of “multiplatform” newswork are discussed.

McClune, B. and R. Jarman (2010). “Critical reporting of science-based news reports: establishing a knowledge, skills and attitudes framework.” International Journal of Science Education 32(1): 727-752.

A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was “what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?” During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science compo- nent. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual’s capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories “knowledge of science”, “knowledge of writing and language”, “knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism”, “skills”, and “attitudes”. Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.

McDevitt, M. and S. Sindorf (2012). “How to kill a journalism school : the digital sublime in the discourse of discontinuance.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 67(2): 109-118.

The authors argue that journalism’s uncertain identity in academia has made it vulnerable to unreflective instrumentalism in the digital era. They show how instrumentalism intertwined with the digital sublime constitutes a rhetorically resonate rationale for closing a journalism school. Evidence comes from documents and testimony associated with discontinuance of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Colorado.Vulnerability of the school became apparent in its own Advisory Board recommending closure.The authors warn against stakeholders in journalism education internalizing the fear and opportunism implicit in a discourse of the digital sublime, a discourse ultimately in service to discontinuance.

McIlwaine, K. G. S. (1999). “Where do all the graduates go.” Australian Journalism Review 21(2): 134-141.
McLean, C. (2010). “Creating a curriculum unit of evaluation of social media.” Knowledge Quest 38(3): 18-27.

At the beginning of last year the assistant Middle Division director at the Berkeley Preparatory School challenged his faculty to collaborate with at least one teacher from another department in the division for a portion of one unit. Because the challenge was given at the beginning of the school year, it was received with trepidation, but, after spending the first semester planning, Middle Division teachers created some amazing projects. This year the “one unit” challenge brings in the Upper Division faculty, with an additional zinger of incorporating a Web 2.0 tool. In this article, the author describes how she has partnered with an Advance Placement (AP) Comparative Government teacher on a media bias unit for juniors and seniors that meets the assistant director’s challenge. The author details how she and her colleague created a curriculum unit on evaluation of social media.

McNair, B. (2009). “Journalism in the 21st century: evolution, not extinction.” Journalism 10(3): 347-349.
Meadows, M. (1999). “Cultural studies and journalism.” Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Polity 90: 43-51.

Theculturalpracticeofjournalismfocuseson issues, institutions and events ‘from the outside’, so it would seem hypocritiCilI to suggest that journalists alone should have the right to critique journalism. This articie looks at the usefulness of cultural studies in enabling a critique and analysis of journalism from a broad range of theoretical and method%giall approaches. Drawing from the work of Gramsci and Canadian journalism educator and cultural studies advocate G. Stuart Adam, it suggests that journalism is a set of cultural practices which frame experience and form public consciousness of the here and now.

Mensing, D. (2010). “Rethinking (again) the future of journalism education.” Journalism Studies 11(4): 511-523.

For many of the previous 100 years the role of a journalist was to find information, shape it into an accurate story and transmit it as quickly as possible to a mass audience via a mass medium. Today, information is no longer scarce, breaking news is no longer the province of professional journalists, mass media are declining in influence and news is easily personalized. Like many news organizations, journalism education programs are distinctly unprepared to respond to such deeply structural changes in the environment. Preliminary research indicates that the response to date has been primarily to expand technology training and reorient sequence and media emphasis tracks. The present study recommends a realignment of journalism education from an industry-centered model to a community-centered model as one way to re-engage journalism education in a more productive and vital role in the future of journalism. A community-centered focus could provide a way to conceptualize a reconstitution of journalism education to match that taking place in journalism beyond the university. Three examples from current journalism programs illustrate the implications of this analysis and provide an indication of future directions for realignment.

Meyer, P. (2008). “The elite newspaper of the future.” American Journalism Review October/November.
Mitchelstein, E. and P. J. Boczkowski (2009). “Between tradition and change : A review of recent research on online news production.” Journalism 10(5): 562-586.

Online news media have become a key part of social, economic, and cultural life in many societies. Research about these media has grown dramatically, especially in the past few years, but there have been few reviews of this research and none of the most recent scholarship. This article reviews scholarship on online news production published since 2000. It examines research on five key topics: historical context and market environment, the process of innovation, alterations in journalistic practices, challenges to established professional dynamics, and the role of user-generated content. A tension between tradition and change emerges from this discussion and is evident at two levels. First, the world of practice seems to straddle the re-enactment of established forms and tinkering with alternative pathways. Second, the modes of inquiry oscillate between using existing concepts to look at new phenomena and taking advantage of these phenomena to rethink these concepts and come up with new ones. The article concludes by identifying shortcomings in the existing scholarship and suggesting avenues for future studies to overcome them. It suggests how scholarship on online news production could contribute to rethinking some of the fundamental building blocks of understanding communication and society in the contemporary media environment.

Molloy, S. and M. Bromley (2009). “Stirred but not shaken: how the next generation is adapting to the online domain.” Australian Journalism Review 31(1): 77-90.
Morris, R. (2009). “Hold the front page: newspapers are not dead!” Australian Quarterly 81(2): 26-28.

Be warned – this article contains a flagrant abuse of clichés that is probably banned under some interpretation of the Geneva Convention. For this, the author is unapologetic and defiant. In fact, she views it as her moral and civic duty. Here’s the scoop: newspapers are in intensive care. Their condition is so critical that even the US Senate feels the need to debate their future. It has come to this. Journalists and politicians, the occupations occupying two of the lowest rungs of the social acceptance scale, debating the future of journalism. Senator John Kerry lamented at a Senate hearing last week that newspapers are “becoming an endangered species.”

Mudhai, O. F. (2011). “Immediacy and openness in a digital Africa: Networked-convergent journalisms in Kenya.” Journalism 12(6): 674-691.

Before the US crackdown on the WikiLeaks website in 2010, the narrative of freedom dominating discourses on uneasy deployment of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in journalism was more prevalent in Africa – and developing regions – than in advanced democracies. Little wonder WikiLeaks did not, at least initially, include African media partners in their potent 2010 ‘cablegate’ exposés. From the 1996 Zambian government ban of the Post online to the recent onslaughts on bloggers in parts of the continent, ICT uses in journalism have reflected national contexts, with restrictions often resulting in self-censorship, as well as innovations that borrow from and build on global developments. This ‘glocal’ context perspective defines the review here of the new media use in journalism in Africa with an examination of Kenyan media coverage – mainly between the 2005 and 2010 constitutional referenda. The focus is on coverage by two leading newspapers as they strive to keep up with emerging alternative spaces of networked online expression. The aim here is to determine the extent to which the coverage reflects immediacy and openness in a networked and converged environment, with implications for democracy. The article employs a comparative approach and qualitative content-genre analysis.

Multimedia journalism: a classroom tour (2002). “Multimedia journalism: a classroom tour.” The Quill 90(6).
Murray, G. J. (2008). “Adapt or die: a 10-step survival guide for journalism schools stuck on the fourth estate (abridged).” Electronic News 2(2): 63-68.

In the spring of 1789, Louis XVI summoned a full meeting of “Les États Généraux,” a general assembly of estates consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry. The three estates gathered at the Palace of Versailles. The First Estate comprised 300 nobles; the Second, 300 clergy; and the Third, 600 commoners.1 Thus, the “estates of the realm” became known to the world. Years later, Irish philosopher Edmund Burke cast his eyes upon the Reporter’s Gallery of the House of Commons and said, “. . . yonder sat a Fourth Estate, more important far than they all.2

Nankervis, K. (2005). Skill needs for today’s television journalists: what Australia’s TV news chiefs want most from the new generation Journalism Education Conference. Griffith University.

Much journalism research focuses on how new technologies will affect practice, suggesting employers will want a new breed of journalists with 21st century skills. This research asks news managers at free-to-air networks what traits they most desire in recruits and long-term employees. A theme emerges (especially in the commercial networks): they want “hungry” journalists able to generate original stories and extract information from contacts. They are frustrated that most young people seeking jobs in their newsrooms do not have these characteristics. None of those interviewed raised fluency with newsroom technology as a criterion for recruitment. This low priority was also reflected in a quantitative survey piloted with many of the respondents asking them to rank skills for importance. These findings warrant further research to determine if Australia’s news chiefs are making a mistake valuing traditional traits above new technology-driven ones. Testing the quantitative survey across all Sydney television journalists could highlight trends across profiles and any discrepancies between management and employee expectations.

Nankervis, K. (2011). “Pushing the right buttons? Training television journalists in the digital age.” Australian Journalism Review 33(1): 119-130.

This paper reports findings from surveys of three groups operating in television news: senior managers, working journalists and third-year journalism students from one Australian university. The surveys – qual- itative interviews with managers and quantitative questionnaires with journalists and students – sought opinions on the importance of techno- logical proficiency compared with other journalistic skills in television journalism. The data indicted that the “pre-digital” skills required for journalistic work – finding stories, critical thinking, ethical sensitiv- ity, news sense, and the television specific “writing-to-pictures” and “presentation” skills – consistently rated as more important across all three groups of participants. These results appear to have implications for the role of the professional journalist in a world where anyone can now publish.

Neidorf, S. M. (2008). “Wanted: a first job in journalism – an exploration of factors that may influence initial job-search outcomes for news-editorial students.” Journalism and Mass Communication 63(1): 56-65.

This essay explores how journalism-school graduates pursue newsroom jobs and what characteristics and approaches serve or harm the graduates, particularly those looking for what are traditionally called “print” jobs. The role of social capital is a major focus: Education, credentials, and experience (through internships, especially) are important, but graduates sensed they needed something more. Some tapped social networks for information and/or sponsorship, while others—often those lacking extensive networks—opted for more aggressive, attention-seeking actions. Among a small group interviewed, job-seekers who tapped networks had better luck in their job searches than those who did not.

Nemtsova, A. (2009) At Moscow State Universities, 2 journalism schools, divided by politics. Chronicle of Higher Education 56,

ON THE downtown branch campus of Moscow State University, students sit in a small classroom, scanning the Internet for the top news stories of the day. They are part of a 61-year-old journalism program that blossomed as the Soviet Union fell apart and independent reporting became an alluring new profession. Within a few years, televised scenes of former President Boris Yeltsin’s tanks rolling into Chechnya had encouraged a generation of journalists looking to document, objectively, the major events of their time.

Newton, E. (2012). Journalism education reform: How far should it go? Journalism in the Digital Age.
Nguyen, A. (2010). “Harnessing the potential of online news: suggestions from a study on the relationship between online news advantages and its post-adoption consequences.” Journalism 11(2): 223-241.

Using data from a national survey, this article explores the relationship between nine common socio-technical advantages of online news and how it is used and alters existing news use habits. The article finds that apart from the ability to ‘have my say to the news media’, all the other attributes – no cost, multitasking, more news choices, in-depth and background information, 24/7 updates, customization, ability to discuss news with peers, and the existence of different viewpoints – have a more or less marked effect on the way people adopt, use and integrate online news into daily life. Most remarkably, online news users seem to expect immediacy at the same time as depth and diversity of news and views. Ironically, however, each of these attributes contributes, at various levels, to the displacement effect of online news on each of the four traditional news media.The many implications of these findings for journalism are placed in the context of recent developments in the online news industry.

Niblock, S. (2007). “From knowing to being able: Negotiating the meanings of reflective practice and reflexive research in journalism studies.” Journalism Practice 1(1): 2–32.

In attempt to define a methodology, journalism scholars use the term ‘‘reflective’’ as a way to distinguish their critical study of journalism from that of a non-practitioner. The phrase ‘‘reflective practice in journalism’’ is now also used widely in higher education course literature and increasingly it is emerging in discourses relating to journalism research. However, the use of the term ‘‘reflective’’ in both cases has not been anchored in meaning. This paper will propose a number of definitions, and will discuss a number of potential approaches that seek to move towards a synthesis of journalism practice and theory. It will start by outlining the current scholarly context for undertaking journalism research, focusing on the rise of ‘‘journalist- academics’’ and the desire for recognition of the value and status of practice within the academy. It will then examine a number of critical models which may shed helpful light on how journalism might be viewed as ‘‘research-in-practice’’.

Nieman Foundation. Teaching Journalism in the Digital Age, Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University. 61: 35.
Nolan, D. (2008). “Journalism and professional education: a contradiction in terms.” Media International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy(126): 14-26.

This article revisits a set of long-standing debates to suggest how the role of universities in providing a ‘professional education’ in journalism might be (re)considered. Existing arguments over journalism education identify a need to move beyond the limiting frame of a presumed ‘industry–academic dichotomy’ to develop a more critical approach to professional education. While supporting this direction, this article draws on work suggesting that a more careful consideration of both the concept of professionalism and its implications for stakeholders is required. It argues that, by approaching professionalism as a discursive and socially valorised basis of identity rather than simply a series of ‘traits’, a more analytical perspective on how universities are both subject to and implicated in processes of ‘professionalisation’ is gained. These processes situate universities as both major stakeholders in, and an increasingly important influence on, emergent formations of journalistic professionalism.

Nolan, D. (2008). Professionalism without professions? Journalism and the Paradox of ‘Professionalisation’, University of Melbourne.

This paper considers the incommensurable nature of contemporary debates regarding journalism and professionalism, with some arguing journalism should be recognised as a profession, others suggesting journalistic professionalism is in decline, and still others claiming that a process of ‘professionalisation’ is increasingly evident. Through an engagement with sociological perspectives on professionalism, it suggests that the reason for such disparities is that these debates rest upon different definitions of what professionalism refers to. Drawing on work that has approached professionalism as a ‘polyvalent discourse’ that is increasingly being deployed as a disciplinary mechanism, it is argued that the apparent paradox of a simultaneous decline and reinvigoration of professionalism can be understood as an effect of the contradictions inherent to recent trends within the field.

Nolan, D. (2008). “Journalism, education and the formation of ‘public subjects’.” Journalism 9(6): 733-749.

In debates surrounding the role of universities in teaching journalism, a range of critical voices have stressed the importance of moving beyond the limiting frame of an assumed ‘industry–academic dichotomy’, while some also point to the structural forces that underpin the persistence of this frame. A consideration of such factors suggests that, while this critical move may be laudable, enacting such a shift in practice is likely to require more than simply good intentions or critical moralism. To this end, this article argues for an approach that considers how both educational and media institutions may be defined as key sites in the production of both journalists and audiences as ‘public subjects’. Such a framework, it is argued, supports a more critical analysis of the role played by industry, practitioners and universities as active stakeholders in formations of journalistic professionalism, and the manner each are being impacted by trends toward ‘professionalization’.

Nordfors, D. (2009). “Innovation journalism, attention work and the innovation economy.” Innovation Journalism 6(1).

This article presents a review of the innovation journalism initiative so far. The novel concepts of innovation journalism, attention work and innovation communication systems are presented and put into context, explaining why journalism and communication may be considered important components of the innovation economy, as well as how this may benefit society. The need for a new definition of ‘journalism’ is discussed, suggesting a definition based on the relation between journalism and its audience, rather than on its relation to the medium it uses for communicating with the audience. The role of journalism in the innovation economy is a novel academic research field. The rationale for this research is presented together with examples of plausible research topics. Innovation journalism initiatives are emerging in several places around the world. The seminal VINNOVA Stanford initiative at Stanford University is presented together with the national initiatives in Sweden, Finland, Slovenia, Pakistan, Mexico, and the EU.

Norton, W. (2009). “Challenges to the future of media.” Ecos de la Communicacion 2(2): 81-88.
O’Donnell, M. (2006). “Blogging as pedagogic practice: artefact and ecology,” Asia Pacific Media Educator, No 17, pp 5-19

Much of the published discussion and research on blogs and teaching and learning in higher education focuses on evaluation of blogging as a communicative technique. This type of discus- sion largely assumes that successful integration of blogging into course delivery should be judged against a pre-existing and unchallenged pedagogical model. This paper argues that to leverage its full educational potential blogging must be understood not just as an isolated phenomena, but as part of a broad palette of cybercultural practices which provide us with new ways of doing and thinking. The paper looks at the ways broader theoretical models associated with the development of the blogosphere might challenge or enhance current theories of teaching and learning. Spatial metaphors inherent in network models of blogging will be contrasted with the surface/depth model of student learning. The paper will argue that blogs should not be seen merely as a technological tool for teaching and learning but as a situated practice that must be brought into appropriate align- ment with particular pedagogical and disciplinary practices. A model of blogging as a networked approach to learning suggests that blogging might achieve best results across the curriculum not through isolated use in individual units.

O’Donnell, P. (2006). “Journalism students and intergenerational change in journalism.” Australian Journalism Review 28(1): 23-42.

This article presents a response to the question: “Is there more to journalism education than workforce reproduction through socialisation to the profession and. if so. what is it?” The response is developed in Mo parts. The first presents the findings o f a 2001 study o f University o f Technology. Sydney journalism students. their career trajectories and approaches to profession- al journalism practice. That study provided the means to identify different types ofstudents and career aspirations. It found “con- fident practice” was a highly prized yet previously unexplored educational outcome. This finding, in turn. pointed to the need to reconsider the nature ofthe relationship between the university system and the news media. The second part o f the article can- vasses existing Australian ideas about professional education in journalism before introducing new theoretical resources that oifer a more robust means ofconsidering the purpose and signjf icance ofthe educational endeavour in relation to both reproduc- tion and change injournalism. The article argues that the discus- sion o f intergenerational change in journalism needs to include the vievvpoints o fjournalism students as key stakeholders in journalism ~. future, and be mindful o f the full gamut o f their career aspirations, the wide range ofinnovative and critical education- al initiatives found in the journalism curricula they study, and the educational outcomes they prize most highly.

Oakham, M. (2006). “In our own image? The socialisation of journalism’s new recruits.” Australian Journalism Review 28(1).

This paper examines the role ofa key group ofprimary refiners in the socialisation o f new entrants to journalism: that is, the trainers, generally called cadet counsellors or editorial training managers. While the paper highlights the historical and structur- al tensions still current in the training ofyoung journalists in Australia, it identifies the two main determining forces as tech- nology and the increasingly virulent commercial imperative driv- ing modern journalism. This paper also taps into continuing and current debates surrounding accreditation and professionalism. It confirms the fUndamental identity crisis for trainers: should they confirm and consolidate current practice or be innovators and catalysts for change within the newsroom?

Oguntoyinbo, L. (2010). “Extreme Makeover.” Diverse: Issues in Higher Education 27(12).

Industry changes force the nation’s journalism schools to reinvent themselves to better prepare students for the demands of the job market. At the University of Mississippi, a team of student journalist recently concluded a series of in-depth stories on life in the Mississippi Delta. The package of stories has been given to the Mississippi Press Association, which will distribute them newspapers throughout the state for publication at no cost. In the fall, the students will release an hourlong documentary about the Mississippi Delta that will be broadcast on public television.

Oliver, B., et al. (2011). Benchmarking Journalism Courses with a Focus on Graduate Employability: Case Studies from Three Australian Universities. Australian Quality Forum.

Benchmarking is commonly perceived as a key part of quality assurance and enhancement, and universities have had limited success to date in benchmarking, nationally or internationally, in matters concerning teaching and learning. This is partly due to the paucity of comparable quantitative indicators. The challenges are even greater when benchmarking is at course (program) level. As part of an Australian Learning and Teaching Council fellowship (Benchmarking partnerships for graduate employability), a process was designed to enable course leaders to engage in collaborative and confidential benchmarking at course level, with a particular focus on graduate employability (or, more specifically, the assurance of graduate capability development and achievement). Among the 24 benchmarking partners were three course leaders in undergraduate journalism. This paper describes their collective experiences and some of the outcomes of the benchmarking exercise. It also highlights some of the challenges of benchmarking in a discipline where graduates may follow a range of career paths, and where technology means professional practice is evolving at a very rapid pace. Given these underpinning uncertainties, discussions around employability and appropriate graduate capabilities are best had face to face with adequate time for establishing common understandings. This has also been a focused way of building capacity and scholarly networking.

Outing, S. (2009). “The all-digital newsroom of the not-so-distant future ” Editor & Publisher.

It’s safe to say that during 2009 and beyond, some communities will lose their newspapers. A particularly bad recession, on top of the secular change in media habits by consumers and buying behavior by advertisers away from print and toward online and mobile — and some serious debt overload by newspaper companies that went on a buying spree a couple years ago when money was cheap and easy and now are at the edge of bankruptcy or liquidation (or already in it) — makes losing more newspapers inevitable.

Patching, R. (1996). “900 into 300 won’t go: Are Australia’s journalism courses producing too many graduates?” Australian Journalism Review 18(1): 53-65.
Pavlik, J. V. (2011). “Digital technology: implications for democracy.” Brazilian Journalism Research 7(11): 95-116.

Digital technology has brought sweeping changes to journalism and the social institutions it serves. Journalism has historically played a central role in the U.S. and other democracies, serving as a primary source of news and information for citizens on matters of public importance. This paper examines the implications of these changes for democracy. It explores the question of whether a more interactive form of journalism will produce a more engaged and informed electorate.

Peters, B. (2010). “The future of journalism and challenges for media development.” Journalism Practice 4(3): 268-273.

Large parts of media development work have focused on providing support to create privately owned, independent media in transition and developing countries. The accepted logic of many donor organisations has been that creating external pluralism, i.e. having many different private media companies operating in one country, is the best way to build democracy and to provide access and voice to citizens. Often the model of choice was the one that has dominated the media landscapes of the United States and Europe since the Second World War: privately owned media funded through advertising and sales revenues. But as advertising income dwindles for traditional media and as newspapers close at alarming rates, the question arises whether promoting this business model in the developing world is the right way forward. In developing a response to this question, this article explains how media assistance has developed, identifies the main characteristics of the current crisis in journalism in the developed world and indicates how some of the experience gained in media development can help to provide answers to the current crisis. Media development itself has come a long way in recent years and today adopts a more holistic approach that focuses not only on building private media but recognises the need for legal reform, civil society involvement, enhanced professional capacity, strengthened institutions that support media freedom and development of technical media infrastructure.

Phillips, N. (2009). “What’s in store for science journalism?” Science and the Media(87).

If you could peer into the various media houses around the world you would be hard- pressed to find a multitude of science reporters. Over the past few years, many television, print and radio stations have “let go” their trained science communicators. Such events have had many of us asking, “What is the future of science journalism?” It’s true that science media units from all mediums, except for web, have remained static or declined since the golden age of science journalism in the 1980s, when around the world there were hundreds of dedicated science sections in newspapers and magazines. With the rise of the internet and the current financial climate there is no doubt the entire media industry is going through a revolution.

Pierce, T. and T. Miller (2007). “Basic journalism skills remain important in hiring.” 28(4): 51-61.

In 1990, the American Society of Newspaper Editors published a report that outlined what editors were primarily looking for in new journalists.1 The results showed that most editors found writing skills, spelling/grammar and knowledge about journalism ethics to be the most important skills that new journalists should have after graduating. Experience with computers and computer writing skills ranked the lowest. However, over the past 16 years, the Internet has changed the face of journalism and is driving some journalism educators to re-evaluate what they are teaching their students. The primary goal of this study is to examine what skills newspaper editors most desire in new journalists and to determine whether these desires coincide with the changing environment of the industry and the changes that are taking place in many j-school programs.

Plaisance, P. L. (2009). “An assessment of media ethics education: course content and the values and ethical idelogies of media ethics students.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 61(4): 378-396.

A pre-post-test survey of 106 students enrolled in a media ethics course in 2001, 2003, and 2004 found significant changes in how students ranked key media-related and journalistic values such as “Fair,” “Independent,” “Aboveboard,” and “Avoid- ing harm” at the beginning of the course compared with at the end. The study also found significant decreases in students’ degrees of idealism and relativism after taking the course, though degrees of both remained high overall.

Platon, S. and M. Deuze (2003). “Indymedia journalism.” Journalism 4(3): 336-355.

In this article we describe the factors behind the Indymedia news model and analyse how these can be understood as being different from or similar to the production of content in corporate news media organizations. Using a series of in-depth interviews with Indymedia activists in and from different countries, we compare and analyse our findings with the help of theories of journalism, public or civic journalism, open source journalism and the concept of open publishing online. Our main question is whether mainstream corporate news media may be able to incorporate the principles and ideas of the online alternative media model Indymedia stands for. The answer to this question seems to be: ‘no’. Even though we see that Indymedia editorial teams often face the same problems as the ones faced by corporate news media, the ways of solving such problems by Indymedia activists are based on a radically different interpretation of journalistic ideology.

Price, J. (2012). Journalism education v profession: who has lost touch? ABC News Online.
Quandt, T. (2008). “(No) news on the world wide web.” Journalism Studies 9(5): 717-738.

Facing growing competition from new forms of user-generated content like wikis and blogs, media companies now claim they will finally fulfill the promises of a ‘‘whole new journalism’’ on the Internet. This comparative content analysis of 10 online news media in five countries (United States, France, United Kingdom, Germany and Russia) is a ‘‘reality check’’ assessing whether these claims are true. Data on formal characteristics and content categories of 1603 full articles are used to identify national specifics as well as general trends in European and US online journalism. Looking at the overall findings of the study, one has to conclude that the promises of an interactive age of reporting are not fulfilled yet. Most of the websites analyzed revealed a lack of multi-media content, missing options of direct interaction with the journalists, a fairly standardized repertoire of article types, missing source/author attributions, and a general focus on domestic political news.

Quinn, S. (2004). “An Intersection of Ideals: journalism, profits, technology and convergence.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 10(4): 109-123.

Journalism needs advertising and advertising needs journalism: advertising pays for good reporting just as good reporting attracts customers for advertising. Problems arise when the equation becomes unbalanced, such as during the recessions in the early part of the twenty-first century. This paper asks the key question of whether editorial managers and journalists are embracing convergence at this time for business reasons or to do better journalism. It begins from the perspective that media organisations around the world are adopting various forms of convergence, and along the way embracing a range of business models. Several factors are influencing and driving the adoption of convergence – also known as multiple-platform publishing. Principal among them are the media’s desire to reach as wide an audience as possible, consumers who want access to news in a variety of forms and times (news 24/7), and editorial managers’ drive to cut costs. The availability of relatively cheap digital technology facilitates the convergence process. Many journalists believe that because that technology makes it relatively easy to convert and distribute any form of content into another, it is possible to produce new forms of storytelling and consequently do better journalism. This paper begins by defining convergence (as much as it is possible to do so) and describing the key competing models. It then considers the environments that lead to easy introduction of convergence, followed by the factors that hinder it. Examples of converged media around the world are provided, and suggestions offered on how to introduce convergence. The paper concludes that successful convergence satisfies the twin aims of good journalism and good business practices.

Quinn, S. (2005). “Convergence’s fundamental question.” Journalism Studies 6(1): 29-38.

This paper asks the fundamental question of whether editorial managers and journalists are embracing convergence for business reasons or to do better journalism. Media organizations around the world are adopting various forms of convergence, and along the way embracing a range of business models. Several factors are influencing and driving the adoption of convergence*/also known as multiple-platform publishing. Principal among them are the media’s desire to reach as wide an audience as possible, consumers who want access to news in a variety of forms and times (news 24-7), and editorial managers’ drive to cut costs. The availability of relatively cheap digital technology facilitates the convergence process. Many journalists believe that because that technology makes it relatively easy to convert and distribute any form of content into another, it is possible to produce new forms of storytelling and consequently do better journalism. This paper begins by defining convergence (as much as it is possible to do so) and describing the competing models. It then considers the environments that lead to easy introduction of convergence, followed by the factors that hinder it. Examples of converged media around the world are provided, and suggestions offered on how to introduce convergence. The paper concludes that successful convergence satisfies the twin aims of good journalism and good business practices.

Quinn, S. (2005). “Youth publications, Generation Y and hopes for the future of newspapers.” Australian Journalism Review 27(1): 195-207.

Ifreadership projections are correct, newspapers in the United States will become niche players by 2010. That is, in about holfa decade/ewer than halfa/American adults will read a daily news- paper. This will produce major problems in attracting odvertis- ing, the lifeblood ofthe l1(‘w.\jwper business. The biggest dec/inc in readership has occurred among Generation Y – people born between 1977 and 1995. They do 1101 read newspapers 10 the extent their parents did. They gel their news elsewhere, mainly online. As parr ofa process 10 attract readers. mal1Y ofAmerica s major publishers launched a series ofyouth-focused newspapers in the /8 months to Murch ]004. The aim was to try to get the elu- sive 18-24-year-o/d demographic into the habit ofdaily reading, hoping that over time they would migrate to more traditional ow- lets. This paper explores the background to these youth-focused publications, describes ‘he main players and issues invotved. and provides a case study of (J youth-focused pioneel; the Tribune Company s Red Eye, which is published in Chicago.

Quinn, S. (2010). “Opportunities for journalism education in an online entrepreneurial world.” Asia Pacific Media Educator(20): 69-79.

The global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 accelerated change in media houses around the world. As the value of media companies plummet, some newspapers have closed entirely or reduced staff numbers, while other publications have stopped printing and produce online-only editions. Others have chosen to outsource content.At the same time,new and evolving digital technologies are changing the way journalists operate. Some journalists are embracing multiple-media formsof reporting, and managers are coming to understand the need for a changed mindset.This paper argues that educators need to appreciate the issue of mindset, and prepare students for a range of opportunities associated with the internet, the blogosphere and new entrepreneurial forms of media. These will become available more often than jobs with mainstream media. Journalism educators must change their curricula to prepare students for a different, and perhaps more difficult world.The paper ends with suggestions for updating the journalism curriculum.

Reader, B. (2011) When Accreditation Is a Hindrance, Not a Help. The Chronicle of Higher Education
Reese, S. D. (1999). “The Progressive Potential of Journalism Education : Recasting the Academic versus Professional Debate.” Press/Politics 4(4): 70-94.

The crisis in thejournalism profession has led an ever more concentrated corpo- rate voice to assert itself in academia, diverting blame and shaping how future journalists are prepared. Historically interdisciplinary, oriented toward the liberal arts yet professional, journalism education faces mounting pressure to abandon its aca- demic ethos to embrace its industry patrons, choosing from a false dichotomy ad- vanced forcefully by a recent journalism foundation-supported research report.To preserve its value, however, journalism must be part of broader academic reforms, modeling an intellectually independent integration of theory and practice, supporting not just a media labor pyramid,but also a press-literate public/

Reese, S. D. and J. Cohen (2000). “Educating for Journalism: the professionalism of scholarship.” Journalism Studies 1(2): 213-227.
Ricketson, M. The slow-release fertiliser theory of journalism education. Journalism Education Conference. Griffith University, RMIT University.

Much of the debate about educating young journalists in Australia lurches between impassioned advocacy for practical experience over theory or vice versa. Both groups of advocates are worshipping the false god of dichotomy. It is more fruitful for the news media industry and the academy to acknowledge their respective strengths and limitations and to work accordingly. Journalism schools cannot replicate a newsroom and newsrooms provide precious little time for the kind of reading, thinking and debating that is essential for the development of reflective practitioners. The benefits of reading, thinking and debating are not as immediately apparent as mastering the inverted pyramid but, like slow-release fertiliser, their value is appreciated over time.

Ricketson, M. (2001). “All things to everyone: Expectations of tertiary journalism education.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(10): 94-99.

Australian journalism education has developed significantly since its major expansion in the 1980s. The conundrum is many older journalists appear to reckon the only way to learn the business is through the school of hard knocks – the university of life. Chances are, most middle-aged journalists have no idea how many of their colleagues hold journalism degrees. An example of this is the comments of Mark Day, who, fresh from judging the News Limited Cadet of the Year, devoted his 22 March 2001 column in the Media supplement of The Australian newspaper to the training of journalists. The winner was no high-flyer from a national daily or popular newspaper, but a reporter on a humble local rag, Victoria’s Moreland Sentinel. The winner’s stories were not necessarily better written than the other finalists, Day wrote, but what stood out was her news sense and persistence. These are qualities of the successful journalist that cannot be taught, Day said. “You’ve got to be a self-starter. You’ve got to be bold and vigorous. But above all, you’ve got to be a go-getting ideas factory.”

Robinson, S. (2010). “Traditionalists vs. convergers: textual privlege, boundary work, and the journalist – audience relationship in the commenting policies of online news sites.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 16(1): 125-143.

As newspapers move toward web platforms, journalists struggle with their authorita- tive role in society. A documentation of policy development for commenting on news articles, this research considers these reader-content areas as places of boundary work for the journalist–audience relationship in interactive news environments. This ethnographic examination demonstrated significant internal conflict among both journalists and readers. The ‘traditionalists’ – those who want to maintain a hierarchal relationship between journalists and audiences – clashed with the ‘convergers’ – those who felt users should be given more freedoms within the news site. The resulting policy privileged journalism by relegating reader input to specific, structured spaces. But for the first time, audiences participated in that policy development, asserting their own textual privilege according to a value system apart from journalistic norms. The result was a grand identity complex for the news profession characterized by interrupted information flow patterns and diffused power over knowledge. Institutional hierarchies for policymaking and execution are radically changing.

Robinson, S. (2011). “”Journalism as Process”: the organisational implications of participatory online news.” Journalism and COmmunication Monographs 13(3): 137-210.

This Monograph will explore the empirical and theoretical ramifica- tions of journalism as social media, specifically “journalism as process.” The piece calls for an end to thinking about news as a discrete product and the beginning of considering news production as a shared, distributed action with multiple authors, shifting institution-audience relationships and altered labor dynamics for everyone involved. Using the exemplar of one Midwestern city – Madison, WI – and its information-produc- tion/consumption community, this research stems from a newsroom ethnography and 100 interviews with journalists, bloggers, and members of the socially mediating public. It puts forward the idea that news has become a transportive, transactional object of professional, social and civic work for both journalists and audience members.

Rodriguez, M. N. (2012). Comparative models of cooperative journalism, California Polytechnic State University.

What are the advantage and disadvantages of cooperative journalism between professional journalists? Between established newsrooms and journalism students? Between citizen reporters and journalists from an established media outlet? And finally, what can be gained from cooperation between non-journalism professionals and professional journalists? Purpose Statement: The purpose of this study is to define the varying forms of cooperative journalism, its political implications, current uses, and potential ethical problems, and to determine if it is a viable option to counteract the decline of the traditional newsroom.

Rollins, L. L. (2010). Surveying Undergraduates’ news consumption habits: journalism educators in the age of media convergence. School of Education, Capella Univesrity. Doctor of Philosophy: 17.

The World Wide Web and its related technologies have significantly influenced not only the ways in which news is consumed, but also how journalism education and the ongoing training of news professionals is undertaken. This mixed-methodology study, using a Likert-scale survey and focus groups, samples the news consumption and media convergence habits of 588 undergraduates at a single university in the South. This study was undertaken for the purposes of augmenting and synthesizing the available body of knowledge surrounding contemporary journalism, both in practice and from an educational standpoint. Among this study‟s findings, survey responses reveal that 50% of students use the Internet for news on a daily basis. Meanwhile, focus group findings suggest most students think interactive features, such as slide shows and videos, make online news consumption more appealing than text-only news. Thus, with the faculty and leadership of many undergraduate journalism programs now grappling with curriculum issues that did not previously exist, thanks to technological advances that have altered how news is gathered and delivered, this study suggests that journalism educators initiate and participate in the discourse about media convergence, as well as enact curriculum changes that will enhance the quality of journalism education and equip students to succeed in a workplace that merges media platforms.

Romano, C. (2009) We need a ‘philosophy of journalism’. Chronicle of Higher Education 56,

If you examine philosophy-department offerings around America, you’ll find staple courses in “Philosophy of Law,” “Philosophy of Art,” “Philosophy of Science,” “Philosophy of Religion,” and a fair number of other areas that make up our world. It makes sense. Philosophy, as the intellectual enterprise that in its noblest form inspects all areas of life and questions each practice’s fundamental concepts and presumptions, should regularly look at all human activities broad and persistent enough not to be aberrations or idiosyncrasies.

Roozen, K. (2008). “Journalism, poetry, stand-up, comedy, and academic literacy: mapping the interplay of curricular and extra-curricular literate activities.” Journal of Basic Writing 27(1): 5-34.

In an effort to live up to Elaine Richardson’s dictum that educators and researchers must address “the total linguistic, cultural, and historical background of the learner” (19), basic writing scholarship has addressed a wealth of competencies that basic writers bring with them to the university. The literate lives they lead beyond the academy, however, have received relatively little attention in terms of theory, research, and practice. In an article that draws upon text collection, interviews, and participant observations from a longitudinal ethnographic case study of one basic writer’s non-school and school literate activities, I examine the synergies between this student’s extracurricular journalism, poetry, and stand-up comedy and his literate activity for two undergradu- ate courses. Arguing that the writer’s school tasks are profoundly shaped by an extensive network of non-school practices, artifacts, and activities, I contend that we need to situ- ate the full range of basic writers’ literate engagements into our research and teaching.

Sarachan, J. (2011). “The path already taken: technological and pedagogical practices in convergence education.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator(66): 160-174.

Communication departments considering adapting or further implementing a convergence curriculum can benefit from exploring choices made at other uni- versities. In this survey, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 110 AEJMC member programs as a means to explore course content, student assessment methods, lab space, software, and other technical considerations. A range of solutions was found to exist, but common curriculum choices, tools, and trends emerged.

Schwartz, D. (2008). “Online turns on teenage minds: advisors link media instruction to contemporary forms to wire journalism students for success.” Communication: Journalism Education Today.
Seamon, M. C. (2010). “The Value of Accreditation: An Overview of Three Decades of Research Comparing Accredited and Unaccredited Journalism and Mass Communication Programs.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 65(9): 9-13.

Several studies have investigated various differences between journalism and mass communication programs accredited and unaccredited by the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism& Mass Communications(ACEJMC),but none discovered evidence that accredited progmms are strongly or clearly superior in major ways to unaccredited programs. In fact, studies generallyfind many more similarities than differences. A review o fliterature comparing accredited and unaccredited JSMC programs seems to suggest that ACEJMC accreditation is a credential whose reputation exceeds its actual benefit. Although the idea of a formal process by which programs can be evaluated and “certified” as high quality is well intentioned, operationalization of that idea has proved to be difficult. Some accreditation standards ACEJMC has deemed most important (diversity and liberal arts curriculum) have resulted in controversial chapters in accreditation’s history.

Servaes, J. (2009). “We are all journalists now!” Journalism 10(3): 371-374.

Most journalism schools are still struggling to find the right balance be- tween vocational versus university education for journalists (and, if either, at what level: undergraduate or graduate?), the discussion on nature versus nurture, art versus craft, specialist versus general education, practice versus theory, production versus reflection, etc. Both in the USA and Europe, though conditioned and colored by country-specific circumstances, much of this balancing has been settled in favor of the latter options (Huysmans and Van der Linden, 1991; Lavender et al., 2003; Leung et al., 2007; Terzis, 2009).

Sheridan Burns, L. (1995). “Philosophy or Frontline?: a study of journalism educators about teaching ethics.” Australian Journalism Review 17(2): 1-9.
Sheridan Burns, L. (2003). “Reflections: development of Australian journalism education.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(14): 57-75.

The global development of professional education for journalists, since the late nineteenth century, has been primarily driven by reaction to criticism of media practices from politicians and the media publics (Banning 1999 and others). The resulting emphasis on the content of pre-professional programs has tended to come at the expense of considering the ways in which students might also develop professional understanding. There has been long and vigorous debate about what prospective journalists should learn, and what they should not learn, but less attention has been paid to the way professional attitudes and efficacy are developed in students through learning programs. In fact, the major influence underpinning journalism education in Australia is still the political/industrial history of journalism as a profession “sui generis”, or like no other (Lloyd 1985). This article considers the development of journalism teaching in Australia and argues that it is time to focus on the way journalism is taught.

Shirky, C. (2009). “Newspapers and thinking the unthinkable.” Risk Management 56(4).
Simons, M. (2012). The Oz misrepresented me. Crikey.
Skehan, J., et al. (2009). “The response ability project: integrating the reporting of suicide and mental illness into journalsim curricula.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 64(2): 192-204.

The Response Ability Project is a collaboration between mental health profes- sionals and journalism educators in Australia. It seeks to influence the pre-pro- fessional education of journalists so that graduates of university courses will be aware of, and are able to respond appropriately to, issues relating to suicide and mental illness. Importantly, the project situates this learning in the context of the core skills of journalism such as news writing, research, and interview- ing. Multi-media resources were developed from pilot resources in 2001 and disseminated to Australian universities. This essay explores key achievements of the project, proposing a place for these issues in journalism curricula inter- nationally.

Skinner, D., et al. (2001). “Putting theory to practice : A critical approach to journalism studies.” Journalism 2(3): 341-360.

There has been considerable debate over the proper place of journalism education within the academy. We argue that programmes which compromise between voca- tional training and a broader programme of study based in the liberal arts remain unsatisfactory because they put too much onus on students themselves to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Taking up James Carey’s challenge to more precisely locate the object of study, we believe journalism education must begin from a view of journalism as an institutional practice of representation with its own historical, political, economic and cultural conditions of existence. This means that the journalism curricu- lum must not only equip students with a particular skill set and broad social knowledge, but must also show students how journalism participates in the production and circulation of meaning.

Skoler, M. (2009). Why the news media became irrelevant—and how social media can help. Nieman Reports. Fall.

Starck, K. (2000). “Negotiating professional and academic standards in journalism education.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(8): 59-69.

Inevitable conflicts occur in establishing appropriate standards for journalism education. The professional community has specific goals in mind, usually calling for pragmatic, hands-on preparation for the practice of journalism. The academic community strives to accommodate professional demands but also has—or should have—as its mission to provide students with experiences that will help them in life-long career pursuits and to produce scholarship that enhances journalistic performance as well as society as a whole. The author maintains that professional and academic communities have different missions yet share some of the same goals. Drawing largely on the experience of the United States, the author argues against the wholesale adoption of the U.S. model of journalism education and for the establishment of the academy as the primary agent in journalism education. The author offers several proposals and considerationsin the negotiating process between the profession and the academy in achieving shared goals.

Steel, J., et al. (2007). “Experiential learning and journalism education: Lessons learned in the practice of teaching journalism.” Education & Training 49(4): 325-334.

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to detail research into experiential learning and journalistic practice in the Department of Journalism Studies at the University of Sheffield. Design/methodology/approach – This paper explores a range of themes and issues stemming from the application of an experiential learning approach to postgraduate journalism education at the University of Sheffield. Following the experiential learning exercise, a number of semi-structured interviews were conducted with students and teaching staff in order to get an insight into their perceptions and experiences of the learning exercise.

Findings – The development of experiential learning programmes within journalism education provides valuable experiences that simulate the real world of journalism practice. Further reflective research work would be required to embed such learning approaches within journalism practice modules across the UK.

Practical implications – Embedding experiential learning exercises within vocationally orientated MA programmes requires reflective and ongoing curriculum development. Moreover, the establishment of more reflective elements within programmes will aid the research process in future explorations of this type.

Originality/value – Research on experiential learning on postgraduate journalism programmes within a British context is minimal. The research hopes to stimulate further work in this area.

Keywords Education, Experiential learning, Postgraduates, Working practices, United Kingdom Paper type Research paper

Steensen, S. (2010). “Online journalism and the promises of new technology.” Journalism Studies 12(3): 311-327.

Research about online journalism has been dominated by a discourse of technological innovation. The ‘‘success’’ of online journalism is often measured by the extent to which it utilizes technological assets like interactivity, multimedia and hypertext. This paper critically examines the technologically oriented research about online journalism in the second decade of its existence. The aim is twofold. First, to investigate to what degree online journalism, as it is portrayed in empirical research, utilizes new technology more than previously. Second, the paper points to the limitations of technologically oriented research and suggests alternative research approaches that might be more effective in explaining why online journalism develops as it does.

Stewart, C. (2012). Finkelstein’s report: media’s great divide. The Australian.
Stewart, P. (2007). “Manic over multimedia.” Diverse: Issues in Higher Education 24(12).

Having technical skills is a plus, but editors and recruiters say “traditional” journalists are still in demand.

Shannon Pittman-Price graduated from North Carolina A&T State University in May 2006 with a bachelor’s degree in print journalism. In past years, her degree may have been enough to set her on a career path in journalism. But Pittman-Price, after completing an internship with Black College Wire, realized that journalism was headed in the direction of multimedia, and she wasn’t prepared. So she applied to Syracuse University’s Newhouse School of Public Communications, where she was accepted into the graduate program in new media.

Sumpter, R. S. (2009). “Core knowledge: Early reporting textbooks and the formation of professional identity.” Journalism History 35(1): 42-51.

This analysis of six influential reporting textbooks published during the first two decades of the twentieth century found that they helped create journalism’s professional identity in two ways. The books and their authors, who in most cases taught journalism on the university level, identified the four basic problems of journalism for students: how to recognize news, how to assign it a value, how to collect it, and how to write it. The books, along with a teaching strategy that relied on practical exercises and examples drawn from diverse newspapers, taught students how to solve those problems. The texts and teaching methods also taught journalism students about their place in a distinct professional hierarchy where they exploited sources and readers while obeying editors and publishers.

Tanner, A. and L. Smith (2007). “Training tomorrow’s television journalists: in the trenches with media and convergence.” Electronic News 1(4): 211-225.

The researchers conducted a nationwide survey examining the impact of convergence on reporters and producers in small and medium-sized local television markets. We examined the practices of news workers in television media markets 51 and below—markets in which journalism students usually obtain their first jobs. Data revealed nearly 70% of respondents personally performed convergent tasks, and we found significant differences between reporters and producers regarding the convergent activities to which they’re tasked. Findings are interpreted in light of training expectations for educators and news managers.

Tanner, S. (2005). “Investigating the hypothetical: Building journalism skills via online challenges.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(16): 89-102.
Tarcia, L. and S. P. P. Marinho (2008). “Challenges and new ways of teaching journalism in times of media convergence.” Brazillian Journalism Research 4(2): 29-53.

This research investigated the training of journalists facing the challenges brought about by digital technology and the Internet. The objective was to develop strategies to assist students to become pro-active and so demand of the institution an educative process that satisfies the new professional requirements generated by media convergence. The results point to the need for journalism education to act together with the students in the search for alternatives capable of accompanying the changes, while also taking into consideration the users ́ interactive and participatory possibilities. Journalism degree courses are currently operating in a fragmented way, as consequence of the reality of the analogical media, and need to improve in order to train journalists capable of facing the new market realities, without losing the capacity for ethical reflection on their social responsibilities.

Thurman, N. and A. Hermida (2010). Gotcha: how newsroom norms are shaping participatory journalism online. We journalism: a new form of citizenship? S. Tunney and G. Monaghan. Eastbourne, Uk, Sussex Academic Press.
Turner, G. (2000). “‘Media Wars’ : Journalism, cultural and media studies in Australia.” Journalism 1(3): 353-365.

The relationship between journalism and cultural studies in the tertiary education system in Australia has never been a comfortable one. Communications studies, journalism studies, media studies and cultural studies programmes have all developed over the last two decades, but in an institution-specific manner. The tensions embedded in some of these ad hoc arrangements – tensions not necessarily confined to these disciplines but often implicit in any merger between critical theory and professional practice – boiled over in a series of newspaper articles by journalism educator Keith Windschuttle in 1998 which attacked the use of cultural and media studies in journalism programmes. A one-day conference was held in November 1998 specifically to debate the relationship between journalism educators and cultural studies academics. This review essay outlines some of the lessons to be learned from the ‘Media Wars’ conference, before defending the value of developing specific areas of common ground – both in the academy and in public debates about the function of the media – between the two disciplinary fields.

Ursell, G. D. M. (2001). “Dumbing down or shaping up? : New technologies, new media, new journalism.” Journalism 2(2): 175-196.

This article considers the thesis that, in western liberal societies, news values, news agenda and standards of journalism have deteriorated significantly over recent decades. It considers in particular those accounts which prioritize the digital-electronic communication and information technologies in explanations of the perceived deterioration. Evidence is drawn from the news-making activities of three UK broadcasters, namely, the BBC, ITN and Yorkshire Television, to demonstrate technological applications which differ both in degree and in kind. It is argued that these differences indicate the need to qualify substantially any suggestion of technological determinism. Rather, it is argued, technological innovation should be viewed as mediated by the political–institutional role allocated to these organizations, their economic and organizational characteristics and their corporate aims with regard to survival and growth. Consideration is given to the new media technologies as they associate with the work organization and requirements made of television journalists. Organizational change, underpinned by technological developments, towards multi- skilling, multi-media news production and the pursuit of novel news markets is seen to convey a potential to compromise journalistic performance. But responsibility for any compromise is, it is argued, to be borne by political and corporate executives, not by technology.

Usher, N. (2009). “Skills training is not enough for the digital journalist.” The Online Journalsim Review.
Weaver, D. H. (2009). “US journalism in the 21st century −− what future?” Journalism 10(3): 397-397.
Wenger, D. H. and L. C. Owens (2012). “Help wanted 2010: an examination of new media skills required by top US companies.” Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 67(1): 9-25.

A revolution in delivery methods for news and information has created an urgent need for journalism educators to define critical skills for success in the profession. A content analysis was conducted over three-month periods in 2008 and 2009 for all employment opportunities posted by the top ten American newspaper and broadcast journalism companies. More than fourteen hundred postings were coded to determine the most desirable skills and attributes for job candidates. Researchers identified important changes from year to year, including an increased emphasis on Web/multimedia skills for broadcast newsrooms and the emergence of social media and mobile content delivery as desired skills.

West, D. M. (2009). “The new digital press: how to create a brighter future for the news industry.” Issues in Governance Studies(25).
Williams, A., et al. (2011). “”Have they got news for us?” Audience revolution or business as usual at the BBC.” Journalism Practice 5 (1): 85-99.

The BBC elicits and uses a number of different types of audience material, but the corporation has most wholeheartedly embraced what we call Audience Content (eyewitness footage or photos, accounts of experiences, and story tip-offs). Indeed, when the term user-generated content (UGC) is used by BBC news journalists it usually denotes only this kind of material. Audience material is often described by commentators and practitioners as having revolutionised journalism by disrupting the traditional relationships between producers and consumers of the news. In the main journalists and editors see material from the audience as just another news source, a formulation which is perpetuated by the institutional frameworks set up to elicit and process audience material as well as the content of the corporation’s UGC training. Our data suggest that, with the exception of some marginal collaborative projects, rather than changing the way most news journalists at the BBC work, audience material is firmly embedded within the long-standing routines of traditional journalism practice.

Winch, T. (2012). Journalism school a far cry from reality. The Australian.
Windschutlle, K. (1998b). “The Poverty of Media Theory.” Quadrant 47(3): 60-74.
Windschuttle, K. (1998a). Media’s theoretical breakdown. The Australian.
Windschuttle, K. (1998c). “Cultural studies in journalism education: obscurantism equals profundity.” Asia Pacific Media Educator 1(4): 60-74.

Obscurantism is assumed toequal profundity. Theauthorasserts that journalism educators should drawfrom their professional experience, write theirown textbooks and develop their own ‘journalism theory ‘,Windschuttle, K. (2000). “The poverty of cultural studies.” Journalism Studies 1(1): 145-159.Over the last 20 years, many journalism educators have thought they needed media theory to make their courses suf

 

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